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International Conference on
Geology & Earth Science

May 2-4, 2018 | Rome, Italy

Program Schedule

  • Keynote Speaker

    Time:

    Title

    Title: The Geology & Geophysics Link

    Deva Prasad Ghosh
    Director of Center of Seismic Imaging ( CSI ), University of Technology Petronas, Malaysia.
    Biography
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    Biography

    Deva Prasad Ghosh
    Director of Center of Seismic Imaging ( CSI ), University of Technology Petronas, Malaysia.

    Prof. Dr. Deva Ghosh obtained a BSc in geology & physics and MSc in geophysics from Banaras University India, then a Ph.D. (1970) from Delft University, Netherlands. He worked for Shell for a quarter century (1974 – 1999) where he was involved in early research on Pre-stack Depth Migration and other novel applications of 3D seismic. This includes orthogonal 3D surveys at Bullwinkle in the GOM and converted-wave seismology in the southern U.S. He later shifted his focus to the bright spot and AVO applications. Ghosh joined PETRONAS in 2000 and is responsible for research, development, and application of state-of-the-art geophysical technology worldwide. He is passionate about geophysics, about developing local staff, and transfer of technology. Currently, He is working as Professor in Geophysics and Director of Center for seismic imaging (CSI) in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS since 2011. He is a member of AAPG, SPE, EAGE and SEG, and a former editor of EAGE.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Deva Prasad Ghosh
    Director of Center of Seismic Imaging ( CSI ), University of Technology Petronas, Malaysia.

    Geology and Geophysics are basic sciences that are used to study the Solid Earth as well as used in exploration for earth’s natural Resources. In this talk, we will focus on the application for hydrocarbon concealed in subsurface geologic structures. Although both these science are needed for exploration success, poor understanding of their capability and their ultimate objective defeat the goal. The misunderstanding comes from the fact that Geology is fundamental, and Geophysics is more precisely seismic resulted from field experimentation. A fundamental issue is with seismic that do not follow “wave theory and concepts”. Point in question is that Reflection theory explain some phenomena such as Travel time and hence structure mapping but cannot come up with true amplitudes relating to pore fill differences related to Hydrocarbon response. Also the ambiguity remains on time depth relation. On the other hand, all these phenomena can be explained by using the basic Wave concept such as Huygens principle, Virtual sources and diffraction theory. After a Prospective Basin has been found by Geological studies the subsurface geology has to be imaged. Hence, it can be postulated that “Seismic is the Geology of the sub-surface”. Currently, the Industry treat G&G as different sciences. The difficulty in using reflection seismology is that portrays the recorded data in time, and there is a gap in understanding to get to the Geology our objective which is in depth. However using Einstein “space and time” concept this bridge is narrowed. All these issues can be circumvented, if we treat the relationship as a forward and Inverse problem as stated below “Given a Geology (in space X, Y & Z), what is its seismic response (in time)” The inverse problem is “having recorded the response, we have to image it in depth to recover the Geology (Structure & reservoir Properties)”. So, the seismic response is in time but the image sections is in depth, which is the subsurface geology for evaluation and interpretation. Hence, after imaging we do not have any more the seismic but geology albeit band limited.

    Keynote Speaker

    Time:

    Title

    Title: Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Proterozoic (1.4 – 0.6 Ga) Alkaline Rocks from Deep Continental Crust of Southern India.

    J. Ratnakar
    UGC Emeritus Fellow, Osmania University, India.
    Biography
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    Biography

    J. Ratnakar
    UGC Emeritus Fellow, Osmania University, India.

    Prof. Jandhyala Ratnakar has received B Sc (1977), M Sc (1979) and Ph. D (1982) degrees from Osmania University (OU), Hyderabad, India. His doctoral thesis was on petrology and geochemistry of alkaline rocks of Purimetla, Andhra Pradesh, India, under the guidance of Prof. C. Leelanandam. He did his post-doc work with Prof. B. Ronald Frost, University of Wyoming, Laramie, USA (1996-97). He has been teaching and conducting research at Department of Geology, OU since 1983 as Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, Professor and Emeritus Fellow. His research interests lie in Precambrian crustal evolution and geochemistry of alkaline rocks, mafic rocks and granitoids.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    J. Ratnakar
    UGC Emeritus Fellow, Osmania University, India.

    In southern part of Indian subcontinent, Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic (1.4 - 0.6 Ga) alkaline igneous rock plutons (± carbonatites) consisting of modal nepheline ± alkali pyriboles, and normative nepheline (ne) ± acmite (ac) are emplaced in the deep continental crust, precisesly close to, or on, the boundary between (coastal and southern) granulite terrains that skirt Dharwar and Bastar cratons at Rairakhol, Khariar, Koraput, Kunavaram, Elchuru, Purimetla, Uppapadu, and Sivamalai that together cover an area of ~ 250 sq km. The alkaline rocks vary from ultramafic through mafic to felsic in colour index and, from melanocratic through mesocratic to leucocratic in colour. The Elchuru alkaline complex in Andhra Pradesh is very unique in having rocks from melanocratic to leucocratic. Under the microscope alkaline rocks exhibit equigranular hypidiomorphic, inequigranular porphyritic, allitriomorphic and panidiomorphic textures. Interestingly, most of these silica-undersaturated plutons consist of silica-oversaturated rock member. The nepheline syenites are generally ‘miaskitic’ rarely ‘agpaitic’ wherein the ratio (Na2O+K2O)/Al2O3 (mol. prop.) is <1 or >1 respectively. These alkaline rocks generally show LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted patterns with negative Eu anomalies. The differentiation of alkali basalt magmas is by ‘fractional crystallization’ (FC); however, ‘assimilation fractional crystallization’ (AFC) and ‘liquid immiscibility’ also involved to produce Si-oversaturated rocks. The ‘liquid lines of descent’ have followed a general sequence, that is, [shonkinite / melteigite] → [malignite / alkali syenite] → nepheline syenite → [quartz syenite / alkali granite] → lamprophyre [camptonite / sannaite]. Some of these alkaline rock complexes are of different ages but have similar initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and others possess similar ages but different initial ratios implying that mantle heterogeneities below cratonic regions in southern India during the Proterozoic.

    Keynote Speaker

    Time:

    Title

    Title: ASTER- and Landsat-based mapping of the Pan-African Shear Zones in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: example from Atalla Shear Zone, central Eastern Desert, Egypt.

    Zakaria Hamimi
    ArabGU President, Benha University, Egypt.
    Biography
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    Biography

    Zakaria Hamimi
    ArabGU President, Benha University, Egypt.

    Zakaria Hamimi is a structural geologist spent the majority of his academic careerer at Benha University (Egypt) along with some years at Sana’a University (Yemen,) and King Abdulaziz University (Saudi Arabia). He has graduated (1984) from Assiut University (distinction with honor degree), and holds the M.Sc. (1988) from Zagazig University (Egypt) and the Ph.D. in Structural Geology and Tectonics (1992) from Cairo University. His research interests focus on Structural Geology, Microstructures and Tectonics. He has worked in many field-related sub-disciplines of Earth Sciences including geologic mapping, microstructural analysis, strain analysis, paleostress reconstruction, active tectonics, tectonic geomorphology, crustal deformation and image processing. He used all these fields to study key areas in the Arabian-Nubian Shield, and to decipher their deformation history. Zakaria Hamimi is the president, and one of the founding team, of the Arabian Geosciences Union since 2012. He has received the medal of the Egyptian Geological Society of Egypt in 2015, and also the medal of the Arab Mining and Petroleum Association in 2016. He has co-published 50 research articles in national and international indexed and refereed journals and authored several books. In 2016, Zakaria Hamimi joined the AJGS as Associate Editor responsible for evaluating submissions in the fields of Structural Geology, Microstructures and Tectonics.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Zakaria Hamimi
    ArabGU President, Benha University, Egypt.

    Pan-African Shear zones in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), the northern continuation of the East African Orogen (EAO), are variably-sized and provide ample evidence for strain localization, structural heterogeneity and in most cases show a transition of various proportions between brittle and ductile deformation at both macroscopic- and microscopic-scales. The Atalla Shear Zone (ASZ) is a NW-oriented Najd-related megashear in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt. Such high strain zone encompasses a complete succession of the Egyptian basement, along with the Fawakhir and Atallah gold mines that are evidently genetically- and kinematically-related to the ASZ. The Atalla area includes a variety of Neoproterozoic rocks comprising serpentinites, island-arc assemblage (metasediments and metavolcanics), Dokhan Volcanics, Hammamat Sediments and granitoids. The main objective of the present work is to integrate field and remote sensing data in lithologic discrimination and structural mapping of the Atalla area. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) have gained best reputation for lithological mapping over the last decades. They have the advantage of combining wide spectral coverage and high spatial resolution in the visible and infrared bands, which make them effective for geological and structural mapping. However, lithological mapping of the study area is carried out by using Landsat 8 (ETM+) and ASTER image processing techniques, including false color composites (FCC), principal component analysis (PCA) and RGB band ratios. The obtained images of FCC (RGB 753 and 764) of Landsat 8 and (RGB 468) of ASTER, besides the PCA (RGB PC1, PC2, PC3) of Landsat 8 and (RGB PC1, PC2, PC5) of ASTER fruitfully helped in tracing the lithological and structural contacts between various rock units and in turn enhanced the ASZ Where the band ratios of (6/2, 6/7, 6/5), (7/6,7/5,5/3), (4/3,6/2, 7/4), (7/6,5/4,3/2) of Landsat 8 and (4/7, 3/4, 2/1), (4/5, 6/7,3/4), (4/1,4/5,4/7) of ASTER were able to discriminate the different rock units in the study area, they were efficiently enhanced the main NW-SE trend of the rock foliations. The extracted lineaments from the SRTM and Landsat 8 data using PCI Geomatica software revealed 1280 and 1267 elements, respectively.

    Sessions:
    Environmental Geology

    Time:

    Title: Trace Metals Concentration in Eastern part of Sulaibikhat Bay Adjacent to Kuwait University - Shuwaikh - and their Effect on Foraminifera

    Amal J Alkandari
    Ministry Of Health, Kuwait.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Amal J Alkandari
    Ministry Of Health, Kuwait.

    Amal J Alkandari was born in 4th Nov, 1967. She completed her PhD at Arabian Gulf University in Environmental Marine Science. She completed her Masters degree in Kuwait University in 2008. Now she is a Health Investigator in Ministry of Health in Kuwait.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Amal J Alkandari
    Ministry Of Health, Kuwait.

    The area under investigation is located in the eastern part of Sulibikhat Bay adjacent to Kuwait University in Shuwaikh. The area includes a wide mesotidal flat and low energy zone which is covered with mud and muddy sediments highly affected by pollutants from sewage discharges. Part of the area has been rehabilitated by removing wrecked ships and contaminated sediments. The objectives is to find the concentrations of trace metals in the area and their effect on foraminifera and to identify different environmental factors (parameters) that control the distribution and deformation of foraminiferal organisms. Sixty sediment samples were collected from 30 stations during the winter 2006 and summer 2006 seasons. Temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and grain size were studied as factors which would affect foraminiferal species. All sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals concentration and foraminiferal distribution and deformation. Concentrations of eleven trace metal elements (Fe, Pb, Hg, Si, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, and V) and total organic carbon were analyzed for geochemical studies. The study showed that trace metals in sediments were highly contaminated by total organic carbon, zinc, chromium, cadmium, nickel and vanadium. Lead, manganese, and copper have increased above their normal limits. Iron concentration decreased after removing the wrecked ships. Mercury and silicon concentrations have not been studied before. Areas close to the shoreline were most polluted with trace metals and total organic carbon, and had very few or no foraminiferal species. Rotaliina, Miliolina, Textulariina, and Lagenina were identified as foraminiferal suborders. Foraminiferal density and diversity were higher during the winter than the summer season as far as environmental stress is concerned. The deformed foraminiferal species during the winter and summer seasons were 0.89 % and 0.71 %, respectively. The study showed that the area was highly stressed, which had an adverse effect on foraminifera. To avoid future environmental problems, this study recommended that it has to isolate the sewage from Shuwaikh industrial area, treat domestic sewage before discharge into the sea, provide environmental techniques for controlling oil spills, and activate Kuwaiti Law 12 of 1964 regarding the prevention of pollutants by oil spills in navigable waters.

    Time:

    Title: The impact of wrecked ship on marine environment in the northern part of Kuwait

    Amal J Alkandari
    Ministry Of Health, Kuwait.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Amal J Alkandari
    Ministry Of Health, Kuwait.

    Amal J Alkandari was born in 4th Nov, 1967. She completed her PhD at Arabian Gulf University in Environmental Marine Science. She completed her Masters degree in Kuwait University in 2008. Now she is a Health Investigator in Ministry of Health in Kuwait.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Amal J Alkandari
    Ministry Of Health, Kuwait.

    The State of Kuwait is located in the northwest of the Arabian Gulf. The length of the Kuwait’s coast is about 500 Km. Kuwaiti territorial waters are shallow with a maximum depth of 30 m. There are nine Islands distributed with the temporal waters covering an area of about 922 km2. The islands in the State of Kuwait from the north to south are Warbah (37 km2), Bubiyan (863 km2), Miskhan (0.75 km2), Failaka (20 km2), Auhah (0.35 km2), Kubbar (0.11 km2), Qaruh (0.035 km2), and Umm Al Maradim (0.65 km2), Another two islands, Shuwaikh Island (Qurain Island or Akkaz Island) and Umm Al Namil (0.30 km2) are located within Kuwait Bay. The Shuwaikh Island is now connected to the Shuwaikh port by the filling of the tidal channel and therefore no longer exists as an island. Shipwrecks, boat and dumping of waste into marine are among the biggest sources of marine pollution. More than 75% of sunken wrecks date back to the Second World War; their metal structures are ageing and their metal plates are deteriorating, thus threatening to release their contents into the ocean due to the effects of corrosion. The North Atlantic Ocean contains 25% of the potentially polluting wrecks in the world. These wrecks are estimated to contain nearly 38% of the total volume of oil trapped in sunken vessels. The Mediterranean has 4% of the world’s sunken vessels and around 5% of the estimated oil volume. After the war of Iraq and Iran that extend 8 years and the Iraqi invasion on Kuwait, a lot of wrecked ship remain either in the rivers (Euphrates ,Tigris , and Karun) that located in the northern part of Arabian Gulf. These ships were either commercial or petroleum ships. The movement of currents in the northern part Arabian Gulf area may carry pollution toward Kuwaiti desalination plants. Approximately 70–90% of the people in the gulf region get their fresh water from desalination plants. The UNDP found that oil is the worst problem related to the sunken ships, stating, “Significant oil pollution was painfully evident even without any sample analysis.” Much of the oil spills found in the northern part of Kuwait leaching from oil sunken boat since 1991. Such oils contain many hydrocarbon compounds, including benzene, propane, acetylene, naphtha, and kerosene, all of which can cause health effects. More over these boats carried antifouling paint that is banded from 2008. The impact of these sunken boats on the marine environment is very significant. Regulation have to submit for removing these sunken boats from the marine environment and to insure the sustainability to the environment.

    Time:

    Title: Airborne asbestos in Torino (Italy): fibers identification by SEM-EDS and their quantification

    Silvana Capella
    University of Torino, Italy.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Silvana Capella
    University of Torino, Italy.

    Silvana Capella has University Degree in Biological Sciences and Natural Sciences. She works at the Department of Earth Sciences of the University of Torino (Italy) since 2001. Actually, she is University researcher. Her research activity regards essentially the study of asbestos, other inorganic fibers (e.g. MMVF), and particles (PM10, PM2.5), from natural and anthropogenic sources, both air-dispersed and breathed (for the letter analyzing biological samples of human and sentinel animal population) performed by scanning and transmission electron microscope (SEM-TEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS).



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Silvana Capella
    University of Torino, Italy.

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the background of airborne asbestos in Torino (Piedmont, Italy) with the aim to assess the subsequent risk of exposure for the population. The geographical position of Torino (near the Western Alps) and the presence of asbestos containing materials (ACM) widely used in buildings, make Torino a suitable study area. Air samples were collected in the 24 districts of Torino. Subsequently, morphological, dimensional and chemical data of asbestos was detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with annexed Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The only asbestos detected belong to the group tremolite/actinolite. Some fibers have been identified as possible asbestos; they belong to the group of chrysotile/antigorite and were detected in all districts. The results show that in all of the districts the asbestos concentration is lower than the limit (2 ff SEM f/l) recommended by Italian legislation (DM06/09/1994). We report also data of a previous investigation about the burden of asbestos in the lungs (respired fibers) of 10 subjects resident in Torino all their life and without professional exposure. The only asbestos detected belong to the group of tremolite/actinolite. Chrysotile/antigorite fibers were detect only in lung tissue of women. The maximum concentration of tremolite/actinolite (0.10 X 105 ff/gdt) and chrysotile/antigorite fibers (0.33 X 105 ff/gdt) are lower than the quantities reported by the European Respiratory Society guidelines exposition (De Vuyst et al., 1998) as indicative of significant asbestos exposure for amphiboles (1 X 105 ff/gdt)

    Time:

    Title: Assessing the fungal bioremediation efficiency of carbamazepine, diclofenac and ibuprofen from wastewater and its enzymatic activity assay by SPE - UPLC-MS/MS and spectrophotometric method.

    Kasonga Kabeya Teddy
    Tshwane University of Technology Pretoria, South Africa.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Kasonga Kabeya Teddy
    Tshwane University of Technology Pretoria, South Africa.

    Teddy Kasonga Kabeya is a PhD student at the Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Science of Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa. Mr Kasonga has a D.E.S degree (classified level 9) in physical chemistry at the University of Kinshasa, DR Congo. Member of several organizations, he is lecturing at the Department of Biology and Applied Techniques of the "Institut Supérieur Pédagogique de la Gombe" since 1998.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Kasonga Kabeya Teddy
    Tshwane University of Technology Pretoria, South Africa.

    The three of five indigenous South African fungal strains T. polyzona, A. niger and R. microsporus, previously isolated and characterized by PCR were respectively performed separately in 200 mL aerated batch reactors as well as 2 L stirred air supply batch reactor using fungal consortium in order to carry out the pharmaceuticals bioremediation efficiency from synthetic wastewater. R. microsporus has reached 95% of diclofenac (DCF) removal in our previous work. The fungal enzymatic activity assay and simultaneous removal measurement of three pharmaceuticals were carried out using respectively HACH model DR-600 UV-Vis Spectrophotometer equipped with 10 mm glass cells and SPE - UPLC-MS/MS with Titan C18 1.9UM 10cmx2.1mm column. Enzymatic activity assay were achieved correspondingly using 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) for laccase enzyme, veratryl alcohol (VA) for lignin and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) for manganese peroxidase. All three targeted pharmaceuticals: carbamazepine (CBZ), diclofenac sodium (DCF) and ibuprofen (IBP) were analyzed in positive mode. The fungal removal efficiency of the most recalcitrant of the pharmaceutical compounds CBZ was achieved beyond 50%, while almost a total removal better than 95% was reached for DCF and IBP at room temperature and pH adjusted around 4.3±0.5. Favor pH value for enzymes production. Apart from white-rot fungi (basidiomycetes: T. polyzona), most used in the removal of EDCs, other species like ascomycetes (A. niger) and zygomycetes (R. microsporus), case of South African indigenous fungi have shown at Lab scale, their removal efficiency which might be applied in the real the wastewater treatment plants for ecological removal of EDCs

    Time:

    Title: Neotectonics as a tool to explore for groundwater in semi-arid environments, case of the fractured Karoo aquifers in the Eastern Cape Province

    Kakaba Madi
    University of Fort Hare, South Africa.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Kakaba Madi
    University of Fort Hare, South Africa.

    Kakaba Madi is a qualified geologist (BSc Hons University of Lubumbashi DRC, PhD University of Fort Hare South Africa. Madi has been involved in the exploration in the Copperbelt (DRC) and is specializing in neotectonics with its application for the exploration of groundwater. Madi is currently lecturing structural geology and geochemistry at the University of Fort Hare in South Africa. He is member of the Geological Society of South Africa (GSSA), and is registered with the South African Council for Natural Scientific Professions (SACNASP).



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Kakaba Madi
    University of Fort Hare, South Africa.

    Finding productive boreholes in the fractured Karoo aquifers is not easy and requires implication of other techniques to ascertain the potentiality of groundwater. The Eastern Cape, second largest of South Africa’s nine provinces, hosts rocks of the Karoo Supergroup over a large area and few rocks of the Cape Supergroup. Literature review, remote sensing, examination of seismic data, field observations, and location of springs and hot springs, magnetic and electromagnetic survey, and vertical electric sounding (VES) were used to identify and characterize neotectonic belts that can be targeted for groundwater exploration. Results indicate that the Eastern Cape Province can be subdivided in four zones with regard to neotectonics. The southern, the eastern, northern neotectonic belts, and the central inactive belt. The southern neotectonic belt has some faults that were reactivated during the Quaternary, the eastern neotectonic belt has been affected by a surface uplift that might have generated some fractures (e.g. Fort Beaufort Fracture) in the Karoo during the last five million years, the northern neotectonic belt stretches over a big seismic belts has seven hot springs, and the central inactive belt with no neotectonic markers. Magnetic and electromangnetic survey point to the occurrence of a fault hosted in the northern neotectonic belt. Vertical electrical sounding identified some fractures in the southern neotectonic belt. The three neotectonic belts (southern, eastern and northern) can be considered as potential targets to explore for groundwater.

    Time:

    Title: Physico-geochemical properties of lake sediment and lake water at Larsemann Hills, east Antarctica

    Pawan Bharti Chauhan
    Shriram Institute for Industrial Research, India.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Pawan Bharti Chauhan
    Shriram Institute for Industrial Research, India.

    Pawan Kumar Bharti, Ph.D., FASEA, FANSF has more than 12 years of experience in Limnology, Water pollution, EIA & Antarctic Environment with more than 80 Books, >120 articles and 4 patents. He has received Bharat Excellence Award (2013), Best Research Award (2015), Limca Book Record (2016), Young Scientist Award (2017) and few other awards. He is in advisory/editorial board of 28 International Journals and guiding 3 PhD students. Dr. Bharti was the member of 30th ISEA. His biography has been published in ‘Who’s Who in the World’ USA and visited South Africa, Antarctica, UAE, Bhutan, Nepal.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Pawan Bharti Chauhan
    Shriram Institute for Industrial Research, India.

    Environmental monitoring and impact assessment studies are very important to evaluate the adverse impacts of anthropogenic activities on various environmental components. Human interference and settlements is the emerging issue in various part of south pole including east Antarctica. Many environmental studies were carried out and a few are in the progress in Vestfold Hills, Larsemann Hills and Schirmacher Oasis in East Antarctica. Long term environmental studies were carried out in east Antarctica during the austral summer seasons of various Indian Scientific Expeditions to Antarctica (26th ISEA to 30th ISEA) by SIIR at Larsemann Hills and Schirmacher Oasis for Ambient Air Quality, Freshwater Quality, Marine Water Quality, Soil & Sediment Quality, Noise level Monitoring, Solid waste generation, Biodiversity assessment, etc. A comprehensive work was carried out before and during the construction of Bharti Station, hence the detailed study after commissioning of Bharti Station is equally important and must be carried out to evaluate the impacts on various environmental components. Physico-geochemical properties of lake sediment and lake water were analysed using standard methodologies. The results of analytical work were correlated with other reference data of similar sites and control site as well. The analysed variables indicated the minor impacts of anthropogenic activities on various environmental components including lake water and sediment quality.

    Sessions:
    Groundwater and Hydrogeology

    Time:

    Title: A Study on criterion of slope failure considering geology and rainfall pattern

    TAKAHARA Toshiyuki
    Kanazawa University, Japan.

    Biography
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    Biography

    TAKAHARA Toshiyuki
    Kanazawa University, Japan.

    Toshiyuki Takahara was born in Aug. 2nd, 1968. In 1997, he received Doctorate of engineering from Hokkaido University. He worked as a researcher and Engineer in OYO Corporation. He worked as an Assistant Professor in Kanazawa University. He is a Vice chairman of council for slope failure and its damages in Ishikawa Pref in 1995. In 2016, he is an Advisor or Hokuriku branch Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    TAKAHARA Toshiyuki
    Kanazawa University, Japan.

    To avoid human damages by slope failure caused by local short heavy rain, which is increasing by influences of global warming, the information of damage potential of slope failure is published from Japanese Meteorological Agency against each 5km mesh in all around Japan. This information, based on relationship between hourly rainfall and Soil Water Index, is foundation of evacuation instructions or orders from local government. However, the capture or hitting ratio of the information is very low; only 20% against past 10 years, because the SWI cannot express the actual soil water in slopes. Moreover, the 5km mesh is also not enough since its classification is not based on geological features, so the landslide or steep slope failure are depend on geological features deeply . We have installed the three ground water level recorders developed by Dr. Ueno into different geological slopes in Ishikawa prefecture, Japan. This means that we obtain the actual ground water levels in slopes on damage potential zone, and the relationships between hourly rainfall and the actual water level in slopes are modeled as parallel tank model. Then we calculated new critical line based on Radial Basis Function Networks by using the estimated actual ground waters and past 10 years rainfall data. Finally, we compared the slope damage records and new critical lines for each geological classification. As the results, the capture ratio is improved over 50%, and the estimation of damage potential of unaffected slopes maybe improved by adoption of geological zoning.

    Time:

    Title: Numerical modelling of groundwater flow for hazard assessment along the underground infrastructures in Milan

    Paola Gattinoni
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Paola Gattinoni
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.

    Graduated in Environmental Engineering at the Politecnico di Milano in 1998, PHD in Applied Geology at the Universitŕ degli Studi di Ferrara in 2002, fellow researchers from 2003 to 2007, since 2007 she is Assistant Professor in Applied Geology at the Politecnico di Milano. Since 2002, she has been teaching several courses: Geological-Technical Survey, Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology. She is author of 7 books and about 100 papers concerning geological and hydrogeological hazard mapping, landslides and groundwater modelling, geological and hydrogeological risk assessment for tunnelling, waterflow in fractured rocks.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Paola Gattinoni
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.

    The study deals with the hydrogeological hazard for the underground infrastructures of Milan (northern Italy) caused by the rise of the groundwater level. The study was carried out by means of the following steps: 1) monitoring data analysis for reconstructing the regional trend of the water table; 2) implementation, calibration and validation of a 3D numerical model of the groundwater flow; 3) simulation of different scenarios (both deterministic and stochastic) of the aquifer system evolution; 4) hazard assessment along the underground infrastructures; 5) discussion of the effectiveness of different solutions for hazard management. In the present day scenario, modelling results pointed out a local deformation of the groundwater levels over wide areas located nearby the tunnels intersections, where the highest increase in water table due to the regional trend is also observed. Modelling results obtained for the future scenarios pointed out a significant increase in water level by 5m in the next 15 years, depending on the scenarios taken into account. The water table rise interests mainly the north-western zone of the study area, and it affects the metro tunnels located in the city centre. Therefore, some metro tunnels will be flooded (or even submerged) with different occurrence probability. The flooding hazard increases with the depth increasing of the infrastructures, especially in the northern-central zone of the study area. Finally, the numerical results for different mitigation systems showed that in the long term the problem could be solved only through a superimposition of the effects of several solutions.

    Time:

    Title: Application of Limestone, Activated Carbon and Sand in Groundwater Treatment: A Preliminary Study

    Noor Aida Saad
    Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Noor Aida Saad
    Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.

    Dr. Noor Aida Saad is a lecturer in the River Engineering and Urban Drainage Research Centre at Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia. She holds a bachelor's degree with honours in civil engineering from Universiti Sains Malaysia. She has been awarded the Graduate Diploma in Environmental Management and Development and Master of Environmental Management and Development, both from the Australian National University. She has been selected to join a split Malaysia-Imperial Doctoral Programme (MIDP) at Imperial College London for more than 3 years. She was conferred the degree of Doctor Philosophy by the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Her research focuses on an integrated and sustainable water supply management system, and innovative water and wastewater treatment processes.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Noor Aida Saad
    Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.

    Mostly, localities groundwater problem with higher concentration of iron and manganese is inevitable. These higher concentrations of both metals result in metallic taste of water, colour and flavor of food effects and cause staining of assorted products like papers, cloths, and plastics. Human activities and organic compound decomposition trigger the existence of oil. The most awareness elements are heavy metal elements which giving toxicity to human’s health and environment even at lower dose or concentration of exposure. Thus, in order to remove the groundwater contaminants, an efficient method is needed for high removal efficiency and low operational cost. A study has been carried out by applying horizontal roughing filter as filtration method. Referring to the high performance water contaminants removal efficiency of limestone, activated carbon and sand, the study has been developed to combine these elements as filtration media to remove groundwater contaminants and to comply with drinking water standards.

    Time:

    Title: Assessment of groundwater chemistry from sedimentary aquifers in an arid environment: An example from central Saudi Arabia

    Abdulaziz M. Al-Bassam
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Abdulaziz M. Al-Bassam
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

    Abdulaziz M. Al-Bassam is a Professor of hydrogeology and hydrochemistry at the Department of Geology, College of Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh. He obtained his MSc degree from Ohio University, USA and PhD from Birmingham University, UK. He has been the Chairman of the Geology Department, Vice Dean for the College of Sciences, King Saud University and member of the board for Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). His research interests are hydrogeology, hydrochemistry, geothermal and environmental aspects. He has published more than 50 papers in peer-reviewed journals, authored two books and translated one book.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Abdulaziz M. Al-Bassam
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

    Groundwater samples from the Mesozoic sedimentary aquifers between latitudes 25°N and 26.5° N and longitudes 43.25°E and 46.25°E were analyzed for 16 physio-chemical parameters. The study area forms one of the most arid regions of the world. The present study is an attempt to understand the factors affecting the groundwater quality in the region, which is dominated mostly by agricultural activities, by using the classical hydrochemical investigation (groundwater facies analysis, ionic relationships) and the statistical technique of principal component analysis The evaluation of the main hydrochemical processes affecting the ambient groundwater quality was carried out by interpreting the ionic relationships and hydrochemical facies analysis which pointed towards evaporation, gypsum dissolution and ion exchange as main factors controlling the major ion groundwater chemistry. The piper plot showed SO4-Cl type of groundwater with majority of the samples falling in the zone of permanent hardness due to the formation of non-carbonate salts. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) which helps to understand the underlying natural and anthropogenic factors controlling the groundwater chemistry in an area was used in the present study, based on which 4 principal components (PC) were extracted. The first PC as expected indicated that the major ion chemistry was attributed to natural processes whereas the extracted components (mainly heavy metals) in PC 2, 3 and 4 pointed towards anthropogenic activities playing an active role in affecting the trace element hydrochemistry.

    Time:

    Title: Managing artificial recharge of groundwater, the Indian experience

    Ramashray Prasad Singh
    Banaras Hindu University,India.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Ramashray Prasad Singh
    Banaras Hindu University,India.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Ramashray Prasad Singh
    Banaras Hindu University,India.

    Water is not only an essential element for our survival but is also an important vehicle for economic development of the nation. Although water is a renewable , resource its reserve in nature is limited and therefore, we have to plan for its sustainable development and efficient management so that the growing demands of rising population, expanding industries and rapid urbanization are adequately met. We need to take up necessary measures for optimal utilization of the available water resources. The Artificial recharge may be defined as augmenting the natural movement of surface water into underground formations by some methods of construction by spreading method or by artificially changing the natural conditions. The artificial groundwater recharge techniques are, specific depending upon the availability of water, hydrology, topography etc. The scanty rainfall and high runoff aggravate the situation. To strike a balance between groundwater resources and exploitation entails harnessing the high runoff, during the monsoon, for artificially recharging the groundwater in post monsoon periods. The artificial recharge structures like surface infiltration, typical infiltration basin, geo-purification through Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT), vadose zone recharge wells, percolation well used for grey water renovation, well recharge system, surface and vertical infiltration systems, roof tops rain water harvesting, energy aspect of artificial recharge and finally the environmental,economic and socio-cultural influences are the major components of water- management. Each of these components vary from region to region and their composition, as well as the degree of their importance will depend on the needs of the local population, as well as on the prevailing environmental conditions. Of these conditions, climate, physiographic, geology, hydrology, geochemistry and biology are among the most important ones because they cannot be modified by human endeavors. Artificial groundwater recharge through enhanced infiltration requires permeable surface soils, where these are not available, trenches, abandoned dug well, tubewell or shafts, in the unsaturated zone can be used. Direct recharge or injection well are used, where (1) permeable soil and/or sufficient land area for surface infiltration is not trenches or wells (2)Vadose zones are not suitable for trenches or wells (3)Aquifers are deep and/or confined ,to tackle the challenge of groundwater level depletion and associated environmental and socio-economic impacts of the country.

    Time:

    Title: Projecting applicability of time dependent parameters for solute transport through porous media

    Deepak Swami
    Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, India.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Deepak Swami
    Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, India.

    Deepak Swami obtained M.Tech. and a Ph.D. degree from Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. He is a professor in School of Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology Mandi. He has been involved in solute transport research for more than 5 years. He is compiling projects in the field of groundwater contamination. He has published various articles in journals of high impact factors in the field of contaminant transport. He is a recipient of BMBF German fellowship and worked as a guest scientist for the 3month duration in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Deepak Swami
    Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, India.

    This work presents the supremacy of time dependent parameters compared to distance dependent parameters. Time dependent dispersion is incorporated into the mobile-immobile model (MIM). Linear, exponential and asymptotic time dependent dispersion is considered. The hybrid model so developed is solved numerically using implicit finite difference scheme. As far as the knowledge of authors is concerned MIM with time dependent dispersion has not been presented so far. It is observed that MIM with time dependent dispersion can take care of medium heterogeneity in a better way. It can be so said because MIM with time dependent dispersion is able to predict the fate of solute particles with better accuracy compared to distance dependent dispersion even for smaller distances from the input. On simulating the existing experimental results it is also observed that value of mass transfer coefficient obtained in this case is less than that of distance dependent dispersion case. As the value of mass transfer coefficient cannot be obtained experimentally, but can only be obtained by curve fitting. So, ability to fit for a smaller value of mass transfer coefficient using time dependent dispersion is of much significance. For more accurate prediction of solute particles role of a new time, dependent mass transfer coefficient is studied. Emphasis is given to time dependent mass transfer due to reason that at an earlier stage, more mass transfer takes place between mobile and immobile region due to the diffusive gradient. Supremacy of time dependent parameters over distance dependent may also be justified because there is variation at any location from the beginning of the solute entry to the time it passes through that location. So, in time dependent case value of a parameter is assumed to be varying temporally. But in case of distance dependency, a single value is taken throughout the period. So, time dependency of parameters finds much relevance.

    Time:

    Title: Integrated Water Resources Management Egypt 2025

    Elsayed Abu El Ella
    Assiut University, Egypt.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Elsayed Abu El Ella
    Assiut University, Egypt.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Elsayed Abu El Ella
    Assiut University, Egypt.

    Major challenge facing Egypt now is the strong need for better development and management of the available limited resources of water, land and energy to meet the needs of a population growth. Egypt is a very arid country, where only 3.4% of the area is inhabited. Water is a major constraint to the country's development. Egypt has reached a state where the quantity of water available is imposing limits on its national economic development. As indication of scarcity in absolute terms, often the threshold value of 1000 m3 /capita/year is used. Egypt has passed that threshold already in nineties. As a threshold of absolute scarcity 500 m3 /ca/yr is used, this will be evident with population predictions for 2025 which will bring Egypt down to 500 m 3 /ca/yr. The Egyptian water resources system is composed of many interacting components and intermingles with social, economic and environmental systems, which are also complex and uncertain. Fresh water resources include River Nile flow, precipitation and groundwater from both renewable and non-renewable aquifers. Egypt also practices the use of various types of marginal quality water, such as re use of agricultural drainage water, reuse of treated domestic wastewater. In addition to the non-conventional water resources, desalination is being used to provide domestic water supply for some locations along the Mediterranean and the Red Sea coasts. In terms of water quality, the few data available indicate that there exists a rapid degradation in surface and groundwater quality. Nile River is the main source of water in Egypt and we should pay more attention to make use of each drop, and reduces loss to the minimum as we can. In the present paper we introduce a brief study about the evaluation of the existing water resources in Egypt and also the main resources of losses and how to deal with it. Also we should give attention to other important resources of water.

    Time:

    Title: Deep Groundwater Potential and Chemical Analysis Based on Well Logging Analysis at Kapuk-Cengkareng, West Jakarta, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia

    Josua Sihotang
    Padjadjaran University, Indonesia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Josua Sihotang
    Padjadjaran University, Indonesia.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Josua Sihotang
    Padjadjaran University, Indonesia.

    The Special Capital Region of Jakarta is covered in densely growing infrastructure. However, little attention is paid towards its environmental conditions. This leads to social problems such the absence of a clean water supply. The conditions of contaminated shallow groundwater and river water makes layer analysis of deep groundwater carriers (aquifers) necessary. This research aims to provide insight about deep groundwater potential, and determine the depths and locations of aquifers in the Jakart¬a area, particularly for the benefit of the Kapuk-Cengkareng people. This research was conducted via well logging analysis. Well logging is a geophysical method designed to find out the subsurface lithology of an area using its physical characteristics. The result from this research can be used to interpret that there are four deep groundwater layer zones with different qualities. Good groundwater layers can be found in layers with good porosity and permeability. By analyzing the curves obtained using the well logging method, it can be known that most of the layers found in the wellbore are claystone with low resistivity and high gamma radiation. The resistivity value of the claystone layers is about 2-5 Ω•m with 65-80 cps. There are several layers with high resistivity and low gamma radiation (sandstone) that has the potential to be an aquifer. This is reinforced by the sand layer with a right-leaning SP log curve proving that this layer is permeable. These layers have a 4-9 Ω•m with 40-65 cps. These are mostly found as freshwater aquifers.

    Time:

    Title: Groundwater Development Perspective and Challenges in the Bengal Basin

    Anwar Zahid
    Bangladesh Water Development Board, Bangladesh.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Anwar Zahid
    Bangladesh Water Development Board, Bangladesh.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Anwar Zahid
    Bangladesh Water Development Board, Bangladesh.

    Agriculture is the largest user of water in the world, accounting for about 70% of total withdrawal. By 2050, agriculture will need to produce 60% more food globally, and 100% more in developing countries. Water demand for industries would increase by 400% in 2050. The main increases will be in developing countries. Global energy consumption will increase by 49% in 2035. Another 2.5 billion people will move to urban centers by 2050. Thousands of kilometers of pipes make up each city’s water supply infrastructure. Despite impressive gains made over the last decade, 748 million people do not have access to an improved source of water. The gap between global water demand and reliable supply could reach 40% over the next 20 years and particularly in developing regions the water deficit could rise to 50% (The World Bank). Therefore, each drop of water is powerful and is in demand. Bangladesh lies on the Bengal Basin and the lowermost riparian country of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta system. Water is at the core of development to the way of life in Bangladesh and the most important resource for the well-being of its citizen and provides livelihood for millions of people. Agriculture provides livelihood to approximately 75% of the population in Bangladesh. The steady growth in agriculture has enabled Bangladesh to achieve nearly self-sufficiency in cereal production. The demand is expected to increase by 100% in 2050. Along with surface water irrigation, Deep Tubewell (DTW) and Shallow Tubewell (STW) irrigation was extended rapidly during the late 1970’s and 1980’s. The STW has increased in numbers throughout the country from 1,33,800 in 1985 to 11,82,525 in 2006 and about 15,00,000 in 2014. On an annual basis, the total renewable water resources amount to about 1211 bcm. Of these, 21,1 bcm are groundwater resources (FAO 2013). Currently groundwater contributes to about 80% of irrigation water. The national safe water supply coverage is about 83-88% (WHO and UNICEF 2013, GoB). Further progress to ensure safe water supply, particularly in hard to reach (HtR) areas still remain a big challenge. Though Bangladesh is not an industrial country, however the growth rate of industries in the country is significant. Industrial use is expected to grow by 440% by 2050. Water resources are important for the textile industries in terms of consumptive needs. The water market in Bangladesh is dominated by a dynamic private sector involving about 1.7 million owners and managers of mechanized pumps, 0.76 million owners and operators of non-mechanized and traditional irrigation devices with about 7.6 million irrigator farmers (Mandal, 2006). Protection of economic viability of agriculture by ensuring sustainable development of country’s water resources will secure jobs and lives of this huge population.

    Time:

    Title: Geoelectrical Exploration For Groundwater In Shales: A Case Study Of Ikwo And Environs, South Eastern Nigeria

    Amobi Ekwe
    Federal University, Nigeria.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Amobi Ekwe
    Federal University, Nigeria.

    Dr. Amobi Chigozie Ekwe is a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Geology and Geophysics, Federal University Ndufu Alike Ikwo. He obtained a Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) degree in Geosciences (Geophysics) from the Federal University of Technology, Owerri (Nigeria); MSc. and PhD degrees in Applied Geophysics from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. He is the Faculty Adviser of FUNAI Student Chapters of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) and the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG). He has published many papers both at local and international journals and his research interest spans through Seismic inversion and Hydrogeophysics.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Amobi Ekwe
    Federal University, Nigeria.

    An assessment of the groundwater potential of IKWO and environs was carried out by combining datasets from geographic information system (GIS), geology and geophysics. The area is underlain by the Asu River Group. Geologically, Asu River Group of Albian age comprises of Shales, Limestones and Sandstone lenses of the Abakaliki Formation in the Abakaliki and Ikwo areas. The shales are generally weathered, fissile, thinly laminated and highly fractured and varies between greyish brown to pinkish red in colour. Seventeen (17) vertical electrical sounding (VES) results, using the Schlumberger method were acquired for the study area. A maximum current electrode spacing (AB) of 300 meters was used for data acquisition. Six (6) of the soundings were carried out near existing boreholes for comparative purposes between the geological and geoelectric sections. Curve matching techniques and computer iterative modelling were integrated and used in data processing. The layer parameters thus obtained from the analysis were combined with borehole logs and pumping test data from existing boreholes to estimate aquifer hydraulic parameters. Results show that the depths to the water table range between 22.1-59.4m at Ekpelu and Odeligbo respectively while aquifer thicknesses varies from 17.5m at Onu Nnode market square to 95.3m at Ndufu Inyimagu Ikwo. Hydraulic conductivity varies between 0.004m/day at Community School Ohatekwe and 0.04 m/day at Onyikwa Playground while transmissivity varies between 0.117m2/day at Ndufu Alike 1 and 3.113 m2/day at Ndufu Inyimagu Obeagu Playground.

    Time:

    Title: Spatial Disparity of Groundwater Depletion in Dhaka City

    Md. Serajul Islam
    University of Dhaka,Bangladesh.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Md. Serajul Islam
    University of Dhaka,Bangladesh.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Md. Serajul Islam
    University of Dhaka,Bangladesh.

    Groundwater is of course a valuable natural resource for the people of Dhaka City as surface water such as lake, river, reservoir etc. are not accessible to them sufficiently. People of Dhaka City depend on groundwater specially to meet their urgent daily needs. But the present conditions of groundwater in the city are not favorable for its population. In many parts of the city there is scarcity of pure water. This study shows that the groundwater in Dhaka city is declining at an alarming rate. The continuous over withdrawal of ground water and irregular and insufficient recharge causes depletion of groundwater. Rapid growing urbanization in the past 30 years also contributed to the present condition of Dhaka City. Recently, it is found out that the declining trend of groundwater in Dhaka City is 3 meters per year. Moreover, predictions show that the demand is increasing day by day and no chances of improving the situation is there. The volume of groundwater in storage is decreasing in many areas of the Dhaka City due to permanent over pumping. Thus, it has become obligatory to find out solutions for improvement. Therefore, scientific research on groundwater depletion in Dhaka City is very crucial to bring out fruitful solutions.

    Time:

    Title: Application of Combined Electrical Resistivity Techniques for Subsurface Characterisation and Groundwater Resource Development in Okpella, Edo State Nigeria

    Ozegin Kess
    Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Ozegin Kess
    Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria.

    Ozegin is a lecturer I exploration geophysicist in the Department of Physics Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Edo State Nigeria. He received B.Sc Degree from Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State and his M.Sc and M.Phil Degrees from the University of Ibadan. He is at present undergoing his PhD programme at University of Benin, Benin City Nigeria. His primary research interests are in the field of Solid Mineral, Environmental, Groundwater and Engineering geophysics. And his technical fields of study include Geoelectrical methods, Electromagnetic (VLF) method and geomagnetic methods. He has over 27 publications in reputable Journals and three books.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Ozegin Kess
    Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria.

    Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) were used to characterise the subsurface lithology and assess the groundwater resource for effective development and management in Okpella, Edo state, Nigeria. Eighteen VES stations were sounded, using Schlumberger configuration with current electrode spacing varying from 2.0 - 200.0 m. The VES data obtained were interpreted using IPI2win Software. Also, 2-D ERT using Dipole-Dipole configuration with inter-station separation of 10 m and an expansion factor that varied from 1- 5 was applied in the same locations. The 2-D inversion modelling of the dipole-dipole data were analysed using RES2DINV® Software. The VES results revealled heterogeneous subsurface geologic sequence probed to 19. 8 m and beyond. The delineated Lithological sequence consists of Sand/clayey/sandy-clay topsoil with resistivity ranging from 116 to 1326 Ωm and mean of 232 Ωm underlain by layer of clay with resistivity ranging from 44 – 455 Ωm and mean of 95 Ωm. The third layer is a continuation of clay of resistivity range from 15.56 – 93 Ωm and mean of 40 Ωm while the fourth layer in some stations is a combination of gravely sand/gravel of resistivity range from 2783 – 4184 Ωm and high resistive basement bedrock of 7850 – 15436 Ωm theoretically down infinitely. From the results, the existence of groundwater in selected parts of Okpella is inferred and correlated with existing wells for effective development and management. Consequently, the integration of VES and 2D resistivity imaging technique has been used to enhance the reliability of subsurface characterisation in Okpella.

    Sessions:
    Marine Geosciences and Oceanography

    Time:

    Title: Placer Minerals Deposits Of South West Coast Of India: Their Sustainable Exploitation And Envirnoment Management

    T.N. Prakash
    National Center for Earth Science Studies, India.

    Biography
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    Biography

    T.N. Prakash
    National Center for Earth Science Studies, India.

    Dr. Prakash T.N. is a Marine Scientist by profession. He is working at National Centre for Earth Science Studies (NCESS) at Trivandrum. He is heading the Coastal Processes Group of NCESS and has over 30 years’ of research experience in the Beach and Coastal Processes including the Management aspects. He has published more than 40 research papers in national and international journals including a book and two field-guide books



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    T.N. Prakash
    National Center for Earth Science Studies, India.

    The beaches of SW coast of India are being mined for placer mineral deposits rich in ilmenite, leucoxence, rutile, sillimanite, zircon, monazite, garnet, etc. In the recent years the mining of these minerals have brought considerable attention of the ill effects of commercial mining. The exploitation has given rise to many problems. The industry is often forced to address the problem of coastal erosion on one side and the environmental and socio-economic problems on the other side. All adhoc measures to alleviate the crisis were not able address the issues. A scientific and at the same time, holistic approach is needed for the long term solution, which only can solve the problem and mitigate the damage caused to the coastal ecosystem. The sustainable exploitation is suggested on a well-thought-out plan` to ensure the optimum recovery of the mineral wealth with minimum environmental impacts. The two important aspects to be addressed for a long term strategy for the placer development are (i) How much mineral accumulates on the beaches or near shore` every year and how much of it can be mined without causing the degradation of coast and, (ii) How can the offshore and inland deposits be mined with minimum environmental damages and with least socio-economic problems. In this paper the sustainable mining strategy is suggested through sediment budgeting and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) plan approach.

    Time:

    Title: Mid-Cretaceous sea inundation in Africa- the Nigerian Experience

    Saka Adelayo Opeloye
    Federal University of Technology, Nigeria.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Saka Adelayo Opeloye
    Federal University of Technology, Nigeria.

    Professor S.A. Opeloye had his BSc and MSc at the University of Ibadan as well as PhD from Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria in Geology. He is a Lecturer/Researcher with special interest in Sedimentary basinal evaluation. He joined the services of the Federal University of Technology in 2007 having worked for more than a decade in Modibo Adama University of Technology, Yola Nigeria. He is presently the Head of Department. He is registered with the Council of Mining Engineers, Corporate member of Nigerian Mining and Geoscience Society and an Active member of Nigeria Association of Petroleum Explorationists.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Saka Adelayo Opeloye
    Federal University of Technology, Nigeria.

    Cenomanian-Turonian worldwide continental sea incursion accounted for various lithotopes in the African basins consequent upon the Gondwana plate movements and its continental readjustment.. Most of the African plate intra-cratonic basins bear the imprints of open and shallow marine environments with evolution of biotopes constituting correlative stages to other mid-Cretaceous beds globally. The Cenomanian-Turonian beds are well represented in the NE-SW Benue Aulacogen of Nigeria whose average intra-cratonic traverse is 800 km long and 150 km wide. The beds have great potentials for hydrocarbon as the sea engendered anoxic effects on the accumulated sediments. The planktonics biotopes are mainly represented by ammonites occurring as Acanthoceratids and Vascoceratids as well as the foraminifera Heterohelicids and Hedbergellids. The benthics which are cosmopolitan rather than being endemic on account of dispersal by the epeiric sea created by the circum-global water mass are mainly in the forms of Lituolid foraminifera and Cytherideid ostracods. The biota are the prevalent forms in the adjoining basins of the Mediterranean Europe, Brazil, Caribbean and USA Western Interior.

    Time:

    Title: Planning for environmental protection in offshore oil drilling and production industry

    Ossama Aboul Dahab
    University of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Ossama Aboul Dahab
    University of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Ossama Mohamed Taha Aboul Dahab got his Ph. D. in marine chemistry and pollution in1985, joint supervision between Alexandria university, Egypt and Liverpool university, UK. He was graduated from Oceanography Dept., Alexandria University in 1975 and since that time he is still working in the department of oceanography, faculty of science, University of Alexandria till now. He visited as a scientific scholar more than 15 different countries. He attended more than 40 international conferences and meetings about oceanography in the area of marine chemistry and pollution. He published 4 books and more than 40 papers in open literature. He supervised and shared executing of more than 20 projects in the field of pollution prevention and environmental protection and management especially with regard to offshore oil and gas industry.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Ossama Aboul Dahab
    University of Alexandria, Egypt.

    This work summarizes the types and environmental negative effects of offshore oil drilling and production wastes. These wastes include production chemicals, drilling fluids, production and formation waters, heavy metals, salt, petroleum hydrocarbons, air pollutants, nuclear radiation in addition to the acoustic impacts. Damage to the coastal environment has three potential costs to present and future human welfare. Human health may be harmed. Economic productivity may be reduced. The pleasure or satisfaction obtained from an unspoiled environment, often referred to as its "amenity" value may be lost. The present work also discusses the importance of developing comprehensive environmental protection plans and measures to optimize the use of offshore oil resources. Environmental protection plans for offshore oil drilling and production industry may include environmental audits, waste management plans, waste management actions, contingency plans and employee training. Environmental protection measures which can be considered in offshore oil drilling and production are drilling operations, management requirements, planning and phasing, site visits, environmental preparedness, restoration and abandonment completion.

    Time:

    Title: The statistical characterization of sea state over the mid Atlantic

    Osinowo Adekunle Ayodotun
    Federal University of Technology, Nigeria.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Osinowo Adekunle Ayodotun
    Federal University of Technology, Nigeria.

    Osinowo Adekunle Ayodotun was born on 24th October, 1978 in the countryside of Akure, Ondo-State, Nigeria. He was gainfully admitted in 1997 to study Applied Meteorology at the Federal University of Technology, Akure. After graduating in 2002, he immediately proceeded to Baissa, Kurmi local government, Taraba state, Nigeria for my NYSC. On the completion of his NYSC in 2004, he went in for his Masters programme in Applied Meteorology (Solar radiation option) at the Federal University of Technology, Akure which lasted till 2008. Subsequently, he was gainfully employed as an assistant lecturer in the Department of Marine Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure in 2011. In 2014, he applied to Ocean University of China and got admitted as a PhD fellow degree in Marine Meteorology.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Osinowo Adekunle Ayodotun
    Federal University of Technology, Nigeria.

    The statistical characterization of sea state over the mid Atlantic was examined by using a 37-year (1980–2016) daily wave height and wind speed data obtained from simulations. Analysis of the daily wave height and wind speed and a following characterization of the annual, seasonal, sub-seasonal and monthly mean sea state from these parameters were done. Results showed that the average sea surface conditions in the mid Atlantic alternates between the slight and moderate sea states. The sea is generally rougher in winter months than the rest months of the year. However, the occurrence of the slight sea is large (50-90%) in the eastern mid Atlantic, while the moderate sea showed a high occurrence (40-90%) over a large region of the ocean. Rough sea condition with frequencies between 15 and 30% prevailed in the northwestern region of the ocean while higher occurrences (0.8-8%) of very rough sea distribute in the upper northwestern mid Atlantic. Hardly do the calm , high, very high and phenomenal sea conditions occur in the mid Atlantic.

  • Sessions:
    Rock Deformation and Structural Geology

    Time:

    Title: Pipe-like Structure of Mafic Microgranular Enclaves Hosted in Older Granites at South Western Sinai, Egypt

    Ahmed Mohamed Elmetwally
    Mansoura University, Egypt.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Ahmed Mohamed Elmetwally
    Mansoura University, Egypt.

    He is a Professor of igneous rocks petrology, Geochemistry and Mineralogy since Jun, 1998 at Geology Department, Mansoura University. Now he is interesting in Geochemical prospecting of REE and degradation of monumental stones as well. He is a Supervisor of about thirty Ph.D. and M.Sc. thesis at Mansoura University. He published more than 55 articles in International and National Journals. He is a Principle Investigator of 7 Research Projects and member of 3 projects. He is a Director of the "Geology and Petroleum Program " for underground students of Geology Department, Mansoura University.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Ahmed Mohamed Elmetwally
    Mansoura University, Egypt.

    The Older granitoids of Wadi Isla, South Western Sinai, are characterized by the coeval emplacement of contrasting magmas which display spectacular structures along their contacts. The geological framework of the older granites has been well established in the last decades, suggesting that the older granitoids of southern Sinai represent subduction-related I-type magma, generated through anatexis of older crust with a contribution of mantle wedge magma. Studying the granitoids from a rheological point of view was the most plausible approach for understanding the observed structures created by the thermal evolution of coeval felsic-mafic magma. Petrological and geochemical approaches coupled with rheological modeling allow prediction of the physical development of enclosed mafic microgranular enclaves and the present rheological state of suspension. The behavior of coeval mafic and felsic magmas is also discussed, as well as the existence of a thermal "inversion temperature" at which the relative viscosity/temperature curves of the present coeval felsic-mafic magmas cross, defining the different stages in the evolution of the pluton. This approach allows for explanation of the observed structures, based on changes of the physical properties of magmas during cooling. The shape of enclaves and pipe-like structures are controlled and interpreted as the result of top-to-down intrusions of a mafic magma into a felsic one. These sinking structures are the result of a reversely stratified magma chamber with mafic magma at the top and felsic magma at the bottom.

    Time:

    Title: Geological Mapping, Structural Setting And Petrographic Description Of The Archean Volcanic Rocks Of Mnanka Area, North Mara

    Ezra Edwin Kavana
    Acacia Mining PLC, Tanzania.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Ezra Edwin Kavana
    Acacia Mining PLC, Tanzania.

    Ezra Edwin Kavana is a professional geoscientist with broad and advanced experience with dual degree Geology and Chemistry who has gained valuable technical, strategic, leadership, planning (Short and Long term) analysis experience. He is a fully accredited member of the American based International Geological Associations, Geological Society of America (GSA) since 2014 and American Geoscience Institute (AGI) since 2016. He is currently pursuing MBA in General and Operations Management at Assam Don Bosco University, Guwahati-India.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Ezra Edwin Kavana
    Acacia Mining PLC, Tanzania.

    The Mnanka area is situated within the Musoma Mara Greenstone Belt, the area is near to Nyabigena, Gokona and Nyabirama gold mines. Mnanka area comprises of the sequence of predominant rhyolitic volcanic rocks, chert and metasediments. Gold mineralizations in Mnanka area is structure controlled and occur mainly as hydrothermal disseminated intrusion related deposits. Hence the predominant observed structures are joints and flow banding. Measurements from flow banding plotted on stereonets using win-TENSOR software has provided an estimate for the general strike of the area lying 070° to 100° dipping at an average range angle of 70° to 85° while data from joints plotted on stereonets suggest multiple deformation events one of which conforms to the East Africa Rift System (striking WSW-ENE, NNE-SSW and N-S).

    Time:

    Title: Structural Analysis of the Tall Al Qarn Pressure Ridge, Dead Sea Transform

    Mohammad Atallah
    Yarmouk University, Jordan.

    Biography
    χ

    Biography

    Mohammad Atallah
    Yarmouk University, Jordan.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Mohammad Atallah
    Yarmouk University, Jordan.

    Tall Al Qarn pressure ridge is one of the morphotectonic features formed along the active Dead Sea Transform in the Jordan Valley. The Dead Sea Transform extends from the Gulf of Aqaba to southern Turkey. In Jordan it consists of three morphotectonic segments; Wadi Araba, the Dead Sea basin, and the Jordan Valley. The Jordan Valley fault shows many pressure ridges and sag ponds. This study includes a detailed field investigation to describe the structural elements of the pressure ridge and to figure out the sequence of events affecting the ridge. The outcropping rocks in the study area are Waqqas Formation (Miocene), Ghor al Katar Formation (Early Pleistocene) and Lisan Formation (Late Pleistocene). The ridge was formed due to the right bending (stepping) of the Jordan Valley left lateral strike slip fault. The main structures are: The steeply dipping Waqqas conglomerate. The positive flower structures indicating compressional stresses. Normal, reveres and strike slip faults are also observed crossing the different beds. The Ghor Al Katar beds were tilted and overlain by the horizontal Lisan beds forming a prominent angular unconformity. The Lisan beds in turn are also tilted and disturbed along the Wadi Al Qarn fault. The horizontal Lisan beds are disturbed by seismites indicating seismic activity. The internal structure of the Tall Al Qarn coincides to some extends with the sandbox experimental model. There are many structural events associated with the formation of the pressure ridge; the tilting of the Ghor Al Katar beds, followed by the horizontal deposition of the Lisan Lake beds forming an angular unconformity. The horizontal Lisan beds were disturbed by seismites. Also the Lisan beds were tilted along the active Wadi Al Qarn fault. Historical and instrumental earthquakes indicate the recent seismic activity of the area.

    Time:

    Title: About connection between focal mechanism of earthquakes and periodicity of seismicity.

    Armen Kazarian
    National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Armenia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Armen Kazarian
    National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Armenia.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Armen Kazarian
    National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Armenia.

    The question is whether seismic activity has a periodic nature discussed by many authors Other believes the longstanding paradigm, that earthquakes are chaotic in nature and have no cyclical properties. Using statistical analysis of local instrumental seismic catalogs of Armenia, Turkey, Greece and Italy, we reveal that each region has its own specific cycles of seismic activity. These cycles have periods of 12 h to 24 h, which shows their connection with tidal processes. Comparing these results with the map of focal mechanisms of earthquakes for our studied territories described in shows that significant majority of strong earthquakes on the territory of Greece is dominated by the normal type of "beachball plot" points, as opposed to Turkey and Armenia, which are dominated by Strike-slip "beachball plot" points. In territories with earthquakes mainly with deep hypocenter and normal focal mechanism characterized only with 24-hours periods.

    Sessions:
    Mineral Exploration

    Time:

    Title: Multi-attribute Ore Selection

    Jim Everett
    University of Western Australia, Australia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Jim Everett
    University of Western Australia, Australia.

    Jim Everett gained his BA in Natural Sciences and PhD in Geophysics from Cambridge University, and his MSc during a Harkness Fellowship at MIT. Following a two-year post doctoral at the Australian National University he worked eight years in the petroleum and mining industries. He completed a BCom and an MCom part-time at the University of Western Australia, where he subsequently taught and researched in the Business School for 30 years. Now retired from UWA as an Emeritus Professor, he continues to research and publish.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Jim Everett
    University of Western Australia, Australia.

    Many minerals are mined for a valuable component (such as iron) but contain a number of contaminants (such as silica, alumina and phosphorus) that tend to lower the value of the product. The optimum extraction of ore from a mine depends not only on the available mineable material that it contains but also on the market conditions. This paper considers the process of pit definition, for an open-pit mine, with the pit boundary identified iteratively by distinguishing ore from waste. It is shown that, except in the vicinity of the pit boundary, ore can be identified as material that has marginal value exceeding the cost of shipping and processing, since the mining cost is incurred whether it be waste or ore, and discount issues are not relevant because the marginal costs and benefits are contemporaneous. In addition to issues of ore selection, this paper considers ore sequencing, the order in which ore blocks are extracted and processed. Especially when the mined product provides input to subsequent processing, it is important that the product maintains a consistent composition not only in the mineral of value (such as iron) but also in the contaminants (such as silica, alumina and phosphorus). Methods for the sequencing of blocks so as to maintain a consistent composition are discussed. These methods apply a multi-component cost/benefit function, using stress values based on targets and tolerances, giving smoother control than a constraint based system.

    Time:

    Title: Exploration Prospects of Refractory Gold in the North Singhbhum Mobile Belt (NSMB), Eastern India

    Sahendra Singh
    Indian Institute of technology, India.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Sahendra Singh
    Indian Institute of technology, India.

    Dr. Sahendra Singh, is presently working as a faculty of economic geology in the department of Applied Geology, Indian Institute of technology (Indian School of mines), Dhanbad. He has the research/teaching experience of more than twenty years. His research interest is gold metallogeny of Proterozoic metamorphic belt. He is a fellow of Society of Economic Geologist (SEG), USA. Presently he is working on a project on the regional scale delineation of gold prospective region within the NSMB, Singhbhum crustal province with the application of hyperspectral remote sensing.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Sahendra Singh
    Indian Institute of technology, India.

    The refractory gold occurrences include both lattice bound and nano-particulates and has an important role in the formation of gold deposits. Pyrite and arsenopyrite are the two major carriers of submicroscopic gold in refractory ores. Other submicroscopic gold carriers include chalcopyrite, loellingite, marcasite and iron oxide minerals. Refractory ores give low or acceptable gold recoveries with the use of significantly more reagents or more complex pre-treatment processes. However such types of gold occurrence are now being considered as future prospects with the progressive development of extractive metallurgy. The present work discuss about the study of refractory gold occurrence associated with the carbonaceous metasedimentary units within the North Singhbhum mobile belt (NSMB) of eastern Indian craton. The gold occurrences are confined mostly to the north of Dalma volcano-sedimentary belt. The carbonaceous phyllite and the cherty carbonaceous quartzites were investigated for their gold content. The EPMA & LA ICP MS studies indicate gold concentration varying from 300 to 3000 PPM within the carbonaceous metasedimentary units. The occurrences are mostly associated within the carbonaceous phyllite/chert, which are highly refractory and difficult to recover due to preg robbing effect of carbon. Since the electronic, photonic, and catalytic properties of gold nanoparticles makes them useful in several technological and biomedical applications, the rapid advancement in the extractive metallurgy for such types of gold occurrence may transform them into good exploration prospects in the future.

    Sessions:
    Remote Sensing and GIS

    Time:

    Title: 360° hyperspectral drill core mineral detection

    Friederike Koerting
    Helmholtz Center Potsdam, Germany.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Friederike Koerting
    Helmholtz Center Potsdam, Germany.

    Friederike Körting finished her Master’s Degree in Geology in 2016. She started working with Hyperspectral Imaging Remote Sensing in 2012, since then she has been part of a work group concentrating on the intersection of Geology and Remote Sensing in the near field and in the laboratory for samples and drill cores. Her work concentrates on the applicabilty of imaging sensors for mineralogical analyses. In her on-going PhD work, she investigates the potential of hyperspectral approaches for ore grade vectorization in open pit mining.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Friederike Koerting
    Helmholtz Center Potsdam, Germany.

    An ever growing depository of drill cores from different projects in the scientific and industrial community are calling for a time-efficient qualitative mineral analysis which also allows for a high turn-over rate. In the course of the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides Project (COSC), a 2.5 km drill core was conducted, crossing the Seve Nappe in Sweden. In order to investigate mountain building processes, parts of that core were analysed by the hyperspectral imaging spectrometer HySpex, a sensor system combining the range of the VNIR and SWIR in two instruments. Five core samples of depths ranging from 1682 m to 2469 m were analysed. In order to verify the mineral analyses for the 360° measurement of a core surface, laser induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) measurements of a core were compared directly and pixel-wise to the HySpex measurements. The hyperspectral imagery allowed for a resolution of 0.22 mm/ pixel which resembles the resolution of the LIBS measurements. An un-split core sample from 1682 m was used to develop an approach of a hyperspectral measurement of the un-rolled, complete 360° core surface. A step-wise rotation was followed by a mosaicking that lead to the rectification of the core surface. The determination of precise key points allowed for the stitching of several core images, even with taking into account the homogenous, very fine-grained characteristics of the rock. The measurements of the whole core surface with overlapping surface frames amounted to 22 h/ m of core and resulted in a hyperspectral mosaic of the core mantle surface. Relative to the approximately 550 h needed to measure 1 m of core with the LIBS, the hyperspectral method seems fair and feasible. The succeeding mineral mapping with EnGeoMap proved to be very precise when detecting the abundance of single minerals, when mapping multiple minerals, a bias towards a few minerals was found. This bias due to mineral-dependent fit value tresholds of the algorithm has to be investigated further in the future. When applying EnGeoMap, it proves a valuable tool to evaluate mineral content and their spatial distribution over the course of a drill core, especially to highlight changes in mineral assemblages. This can be seen as the beginning of the development of a stand-alone hyperspectral drill core scanner.

    Time:

    Title: Land Cover Classification of Fergana Valley Using NDVI Method

    Zheenbek Kulenbekov
    American University of Central Asia, Kyrgyzstan.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Zheenbek Kulenbekov
    American University of Central Asia, Kyrgyzstan.

    Dr. Kulenbekov received his PhD from the Technical University of Freiberg Mining Academy, Germany in 2013. Currently, he is working as a Chair of Environmental Management and Sustainable Development (EMSD) and Applied Geology programs at the American University of Central Asia (AUCA), since August 2014. He is one of the recipients of a research award from PEER, administered by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 2016. He is a member of the Intergovernmental science-policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) since 2016. He is a member of AUCA Expert Council of USAID Building Future Project since January, 2017.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Zheenbek Kulenbekov
    American University of Central Asia, Kyrgyzstan.

    This paper describes methodology and results of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The NDVI helps to generate accurate land cover maps in fully automatic manner from Landsat8 remote sensed data throughout USGS website. A preliminary study aimed at recognizing the healthy and stressed vegetation in Ferghana Valley over three years in 2014, 2015 and 2016. Territory and cities of Ferghana Valley have been selected as study areas (Andijan, Fergana, Margilan, Namangan, Kokand, Shahimardan); they are covering different agricultural regions and greenery types, from evergreen to others. According to the results, in 2016 the vegetation indices are shown higher value than in 2014 and 2015, there may be different reasons for this, particularly relatively denser vegetation, lack of water, soil properties or/and likely different weather conditions due to climate change. Hence, the NDVI tool is credible method for researching an assessment of crop density and health.

    Time:

    Title: Challenges to National Landform Mapping for the Semantic Web

    Samantha Arundel
    United States Geological Survey, USA.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Samantha Arundel
    United States Geological Survey, USA.

    Dr. Samantha T. Arundel (Sam) earned her Ph.D. in geography at Arizona State University in 2000, and was an assistant and then associate professor at Northern Arizona University until 2009, when she joined the USGS. There, she first served as elevation specialist for the Applied Research and Technology Branch. During that time, she led the contour generation development team in contour production for the US Topo product; and served as program manager for automation of the National Elevation Dataset. Recently, Sam moved to the Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science, where she is a research geographer conducting terrain mapping studies.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Samantha Arundel
    United States Geological Survey, USA.

    Since the arrival of the World Wide Web and then the Semantic Web, the need for techniques to convert field-based elevation data into cognitively-meaningful, semantically-accessible landform objects has persisted. With vast quantities of high-resolution elevation data provided from the 3D Elevation Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), this need has grown. Mapping landform boundaries on a National scale is a tremendous challenge in the United States. While in the past the USGS had teams of mappers in the field collecting topographic data, such practices are no longer employed. Relying on expert groups to provide these maps is unrealistic due to time and cost restraints. Hence, creating cognitively-salient terrain objects for the entire United States requires computer automation. Overall challenges still to be resolved in automating landform mapping include determining the ideal size of objects in the high-level segmentation, choosing the best resolutions to represent the terrain but minimize data storage and processing requirements, and deciding whether the problem should be approached from the specific or general geomorphological viewpoint. It may be that all the factors depend upon the feature type. Even once answers to these issues have been traversed, a lack of clear, general, and broadly applicable mapping rules for any landform feature hinders automation, as well as diverse, widespread validation data. This paper addresses ways in which these challenges might be considered in future research.

    Time:

    Title: Digital elevation modeling of Saint Martin island, Bangladesh: method based on open source google earth data.

    Faruk Hossain
    Geological Survey of Bangladesh, Bangladesh.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Faruk Hossain
    Geological Survey of Bangladesh, Bangladesh.

    Faruk Hossain was born in Dec. 30, 1981. He received Bachelor degree in Geology in 2005 from University of Dhaka and Master degree in Petroleum Geology & Exploration Geophysics in 2006 from same institute. He also received a 2nd Master degree in Engineering Geology in 2014 from National University of Malaysia (UKM). He joined as an Assistant Director (geology), Geological Survey of Bangladesh in 2011 and till now working under a branch of the Organization Name Environmental Geology & Hazard Assessment Branch.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Faruk Hossain
    Geological Survey of Bangladesh, Bangladesh.

    Many method or sources of data of the earth surfaces are well established for the digital elevation modeling. But all the traditional available data have not availability to easy access of public. Many researchers try to established alternative way of Digital Elevation Modeling (DEM) through open sources data. Google earth is one of the most open sources tool of vast and diversifies free access data source. In this paper an attempt has taken to high resolution Digital Elevation Modeling of Saint Martin Island, southern most territory of Bangladesh, based on Google earth data. Though SRTM (90m, 30m) & Global Aster (30m) DEM are now available for free of cost but resolution is not enough for large-scale small area. In this method a 10m resolution DEM are extracted from Google earth data and it also possible to develop <10m resolution DEM for large-scale small area. sixty-six thousand elevation points are collected from the study area and have an opportunity to collect more and more elevation point for fine resolution DEM. A comparative assessment through elevation profiling in different direction has performed for DEM extracted from Google earth and Shuttle Radar Thematic Mapper (SRTM) DEM. It was found that maximum elevation from DEM extracted from Google earth and SRTM DEM shows respectively 13m and 14m which are almost similar. But many researchers reported that average elevation of Saint Martin Island is 5-6m. After verification of Google image and extracted DEM from Google, it was clearly observed that higher elevation especially above 7.0m showed elevation with tree and building cover. If vegetation and building effect for elevation are reduced then this method would be a good source for elevation modeling of a large scale small area.

    Time:

    Title: Reservoir Modeling of B Sandstone Using Geostatistical Method in Bekasap Formation, Naomi Field, Central Sumatra Basin

    Ronald Chevalier
    Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Ronald Chevalier
    Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia.

    Geoscientist with 9 years experience in oil and gas industry with specialty on seismic data processing and interpretation. Responsibilities on documentation of client enhancements, define workflows, as well as in knowledge-sharing activities, providing technical support advisor, deliver training on Paradigm’s seismic processing & interpretation software. Working well independently and in a team, analytical thinkers, creative and innovative, and strong understanding of important science behind the software concepts and have excellent communications skills.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Ronald Chevalier
    Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia.

    During the development program of Naomi field, it is important to execute modelling and reservoir characterization that it comprised of reservoir properties and facies distribution. The program will focus on the potential reservoir Bekasap Formation, which is B sandstone. The expectation from the evaluation result capability is to describe a better play concept in order to increase fields performance. The primary data using in this research: core, well log, and seismic interpretation through and the secondary: petrophysical log and biostratigrafi. According to core, biostratigraphy and electrofacies analysis, the field can be differentiated into several depositional facies which are tidal channel facies, tidal bar facies and shelf facies. Identification of reservoir properties and facies distribution in this field will use multiple point statistic which based on training image. The usage of multiple point statistic method is based on the uncertainty of facies model determinate by variogram based statistic method. Interpretation result of the final model show that tidal channel facies is potentially have good reservoir quality compare to other facies in this field.

    Sessions:
    Engineering Geology and Geomechanics

    Time:

    Title: Mathematical modelling of coal longwall mining process in Kuzbass sedimentary basin.

    Mikhail Eremin
    National Research Tomsk State University, Russia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Mikhail Eremin
    National Research Tomsk State University, Russia.

    Eremin Mikhail has completed his PhD from Tomsk State University, Russia and postdoctoral studies from Institute of strength physics and materials science SB RAS, Russia. He is a researcher of laboratory of mechanics of non-homogeneous media He has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Mikhail Eremin
    National Research Tomsk State University, Russia.

    Langwall mining is one of the most widely spread technologies of coal mining in the world. However, there are some particular problems connected with that type of coal mining. First of all, a great increase of mining rates (up to 10 and more meters/day) causes sufficient stress concentration near the air and conveyer gates, pillars which sometimes results in catastrophic failures and, thus, the break of stope advancing. On the stage of mining projecting it becomes useful to make a numerical simulation of mining process in order to optimize the mining parameters and predict a possible failures depending on the features of bedding planes, physical-mechanical characteristics of rocks, existence of faults and so on. In a present talk the possibilities of finite-difference approach on the base of Wilkins M.L. numerical scheme are applied to modelling of anelastic deformation and failure of rock mass elements – immediate and main roof, floor and overburden. An elastic-plastic-damage media model is used in simulations. When rocks exhibit anelastic behavior a modified model of Drucker-Prager-Nikolaevskii is used to define the rate of inelastic strains. The results of modelling give an opportunity to estimate a drastic change of abutment pressure when the stope face is advanced, the local and global loss of roff/ floor / overburden stability. And also to estimate the steps of first cave-in process depending on the structural characteristics of the rock mass.

    Time:

    Title: Water Saturation Exponent, Cementation exponent and tortuosity Factor Using 3-D and CAPE Techniques in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Gharib M. Hamada
    Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Gharib M. Hamada
    Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia.

    Gharib M. Hamada, (ghareb.mostafa@utp.edu.my) is Associate Professor, Petroleum Engineering Department, Faculty of Geosciences & Petroleum Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia. Prof. Hamada had previously worked with Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Future University, Egypt; United Arab Emirates University, UAE; The British University in Egypt, Egypt; King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia; Cairo University and Ain Shams University, Egypt; King Saud University, Saudi Arabia; Technical University of Denmark, Denmark, and Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman. Hamada’s research philosophy is based mainly on carrying both applied research dealing with petroleum industry problems and fundamental research to generate new solution for certain petroleum engineering problem. Research interests are mainly formation evaluation & petrophysics, production logging, shale gas reservoirs and artificial intelligence applications in formation evaluation & petrophysics. Hamada has more than 145 papers published in referred scientific journals and presented at technical conferences. Hamada holds BS and MS in petroleum engineering from Cairo University, Egypt and DEA and. D'Ingenieur in applied geophysics from Bordeaux University, France. He is a member of SPE, SPWLA and SCA.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Gharib M. Hamada
    Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia.

    Determination of water saturation and formation evaluation in heterogeneous reservoir becomes more challenging as Archie's equation is only suitable for the clean homogenous formation and high dependency of Archie's parameters on rock properties. This study focuses on the measurement of Archie’s parameters in carbonate and sandstone core samples around Malaysian heterogeneous carbonate and sandstone reservoirs. Three techniques for determination of Archie’s parameters a, m and n will be implemented: Conventional technique, Core Archie’s Parameter Estimation (CAPE) and Three-Dimensional Regression Technique (3D). By using results obtained from three different techniques, water saturation graphs were produced to observe a symbolic difference of Archie’s parameter and relevant impact on water saturation values. The difference in water saturation values could be primarily attributed to showing the uncertainty level of Archie's parameters mainly in carbonate and sandstone rock samples. It was obvious that the accuracy of Archie's parameters has profound impact on the calculated water saturation values in carbonate sandstone reservoir due to highly stress region will reduced electrical conduction due to raised electrical heterogeneity the heterogeneous carbonate core samples. Due to unrealistic assumptions involved in the conventional method, it is better to use either CAPE or 3-D method to accurately determine Archie’s parameters in heterogonous as well homogenous reservoirs.

    Time:

    Title: Effect Of Tropically Weathered Sandstone And Shale On Ripping Productivity

    Edy Tonnizam Bin Mohamad
    Centre of Tropical Geoengineering, Malaysia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Edy Tonnizam Bin Mohamad
    Centre of Tropical Geoengineering, Malaysia.

    Prof. Dr. Edy Tonnizam Bin Mohamad started his career as a geologist and geophysicist at OYO Corporation (Japan), Singapore after graduating from University of Malaya in 1993. In 1995, he joined Sunway Group as a Quarry Development Manager in Sunway Holdings (Quarry) Sdn. Bhd. In year 2000, he joined UTM as an academician in Department of Geotechnics and Transportation, Faculty of Civil Engineering UTM. In 2013 he was appointed as Head of Geoengineering and Geohazard Research Group. Later in 2014, he was appointed the Head of Department. He is the Founder cum Director of Centre of Tropical Geoengineering UTM since 2016.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Edy Tonnizam Bin Mohamad
    Centre of Tropical Geoengineering, Malaysia.

    The main factor which influences cutting performance of a ripper is the geological properties of the site and the machine parameters. Rock masses can be considered to be a function of a number of measurable parameters, with respect to their geomechanical properties display in massive and actual form. The properties are determined based on weathering, material strength, stratification of lithologies, frequency of jointing, discontinuities, bedding, orientation of joints, infill material faults and rock material. This paper aims to present various systems of rock mass classifications to evaluate tropically weathered interbedded sandstone and shale. Ripping in interbedded sandstone and shale with different weathering grades were more challenging at Bukit Indah and Mersing sites. The sandstone and shale have undergone severe weathering effects and oxidation can be clearly seen from the accumulation of ferrum oxide especially at the discontinuities surface. A total number of 42 and 15 locations ranges from slightly to completely weathered material were monitored during ripping test. From the scan lines result, the data were evaluated by the rock mass classifications to define the ease of actual excavation. The RMR, Q-system and the Excavation Index (EI) values suggested the type of excavation needed to remove the rock materials. Results suggested a new set of factors to be evaluated in ripping performance and should not be neglected in these type of area. Low strength material, which can be ripped easily if it stands independently, might not be able to be ripped if it is sandwiched between unrippable materials.

    Time:

    Title: The Emerging concerns & Contemporary World Encounters

    Haidar Fadhil Abbas Al-Qrimli
    Heriot-Watt University Malaysia, Malaysia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Haidar Fadhil Abbas Al-Qrimli
    Heriot-Watt University Malaysia, Malaysia.

    Dr. Haidar earned his BSc in Mechanical Engineering from The University of Technology Baghdad and then went on to obtain his MSc in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Malaya before joining The University of Nottingham to complete his PhD, majoring in applied mechanics with specific research focusing on composite materials and robotics. He was amongst the top ten candidates in his undergraduate as well as in his postgraduate studies. He received a full scholarship for his PhD, awarded to outstanding students in recognition of their achievements. He is an active researcher who has published numerous research papers and journal articles within his fields of interest. A member of several professional associations, he is also a full member of the British Institute of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) and a Chartered Engineer (CEng) in the Engineering Council UK.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Haidar Fadhil Abbas Al-Qrimli
    Heriot-Watt University Malaysia, Malaysia.

    Today we live in a fast paced and ever changing world. Advances and ingenuity in engineering are at the root of most developments in various fields throughout history and this continues to be accurate nowadays. Engineering and technology has totally transformed the world in which we live, particularly within the last 150 years. However it is also true to say that within each decade engineers have faced challenges and demands related to the age. In this article we discuss the emerging issues in engineering today, with a specific focus on the field of mechanical engineering. We will also examine how these emerging issues may impact upon the engineering graduates of the future and the employment market. Firstly it is important to clearly define what we mean by ‘Engineering’. We consider engineering as a branch of science, technology and mathematical understanding which is concerned with the understanding, design, building, and use of materials, structures and systems. The goal of engineering is to improve the quality of life for society – concerned with solving problems. Many people in the West view the Industrial Revolution of the late 1700’s and the subsequent mechanisation and industrial development throughout the 18th and 19th Century as the golden era of engineering. What was significant for engineering at this time in history was the apparently endless supply of natural resources such as coal, oil and gas, as well as a limitless water supply and abundance of materials. We now know today that this is not the reality and the world is facing an environmental and poverty crisis.

    Time:

    Title: Assessment of Maximum Earthquake Potential of the Kopili Fault Source Zone and Strong Ground Motion Simulation

    Anup Kumar Sutar
    Ministry of Earth Sciences, India.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Anup Kumar Sutar
    Ministry of Earth Sciences, India.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Anup Kumar Sutar
    Ministry of Earth Sciences, India.

    A detailed analysis has been carried out to estimate the maximum magnitude (MM) earthquake potential for the Kopili fault source zone using different approaches that primarily are dependent on the fault geometry, slip rate, geodetic moment rate and convergence rate. The results suggest that the source zone has accumulated sufficient strain energy necessary for generating a strong earthquake of magnitude ≥ 7. On the basis of statistical mean as well as in view of the possibility of repeating an event similar to the one occurred in 1943, we have assessed Mw7.3 as the potential earthquake for the Kopili source zone. Such potential earthquake may cause significant strong ground shaking and damage in the study region. Consequently, an effort has also been made to simulate ground motion corresponding to the potential Mw 7.3 event at ten different sites using Empirical Green’s Function (EGF) approach, to understand hazard scenario in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) in the study region. An earthquake Mw 6.5, which is simulated from a recorded Mw 5.3 element earthquake, has been used as Green’s Function for simulating ground motion corresponding to the potential event. The two step approach has been adopted in simulation exercise, as the moment ratio between the target potential event (Mw 7.3) and the observed element event (Mw 5.3) could not meet the required criteria to be < 1000. We infer from the analysis that the cities like Tezpur, Masamari, Tumuki, Dhekiajuli, Nagon, Dhekiajuli, Bomdila, Udalguri, Seppa, Hajoi, Behali, Guwahati and Itanagar that are located about 60 - 130 km away from the source, may experience very strong to moderate ground shaking with peak ground acceleration (PGA) ranging between 0.36 – 0.14g. However, cities located in the epicentral distance of about 130 – 300 km, namely, Jorhat, Ziro, Mokokchung, Dhubri and Kokrajhar are expected to have low ground shaking with PGA < 0.14 g.

    Time:

    Title: Liquefaction Susceptibility of Panchagarh Pourashava and Surroundings through Geomorphological, Geological, Engineering Geological Mapping and Seismic Microzoning

    Mohammad Anisur Rahman
    Geological survey of Bangladesh, Bangladesh.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Mohammad Anisur Rahman
    Geological survey of Bangladesh, Bangladesh.

    Mohammad Anisur Rahman is working in geological survey of Bangladesh since 25th January 2007. He have completed his Ms Degree in Geology from Dhaka University. He was involved in seismometer stations setup in four places of Bangladesh recently under a cooperation project of GSB-NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute) with the technical assistance of Bergen University. He was also engaged in geological, geomorphological and engineering geological mapping that have assist in seismic microzonation of eleven mega cities in Bangladesh under Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP) for earthquake preparedness. He have attended in the training course on SEISMOLOGY, SEISMIC DATA ANALYSIS, HAZARD ASSESSMENT AND RISK MITIGATION that will was held in September 26 to October 21, 2016, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar by GFZ.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Mohammad Anisur Rahman
    Geological survey of Bangladesh, Bangladesh.

    Panchagarh pourashava and surrounding area is located near main boundary fault. The site was selected for liquefaction analysis as the area stands in zone II in seismic microzoning map of Bangladesh. For liquefaction analysis geological, geomorphological and engineering geological maps were prepared by aerial photographs of 1954. About 150 sq.km area was mapped during field session. Finally liquefied soil deposits with unliquefied seam are interpreted by any earthquake of moment magnitude 7.5 and based on the liquefaction susceptibility seismic microzonation map is prepared. Geomorphologically the mapped area is classified as higher fan surface, lower fan surface, younger point bar, older point bar, lateral bar, meander scar, active channel, abandoned channel, overflow channel, flow lobe, natural levee. Geologically the area is mapped as alluvial flan deposits, bar deposits, natural levee deposits, active channel deposits and abandoned channel deposits. Karatoya, Chaowi and Talma are the main river flow mainly in north-south direction in the area. For geological, engineering geological maps and liquefaction analysis, 15 SPT boreholes with 25 auger holes were carried out in the study area. By Borehole and auger data in alluvial fan reveal that gravel bed is present everywhere in subsurface but thickness and depth varies. For liquefaction analysis CRR (Cyclic Resistance Ratio) and CSR (Cyclic Stress Ratio) is calculated. By correlating different geological unit and CRR and CSR value the area is classified into three zones. Sediments close to the channel have liquefied more than other area. As groundwater table lies close to the near surface liquefaction hazard might be higher if higher magnitude earthquake occurs close to the country.

    Time:

    Title: Geological and Geotechnical Assessment of selected gully sites in Lainde Fulani Area NE Nigeria

    Gabriel Ike Obiefuna
    Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Nigeria.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Gabriel Ike Obiefuna
    Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Nigeria.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Gabriel Ike Obiefuna
    Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Nigeria.

    The Geological and Geotechnical assessment of selected gully sites in Lainde-Fulani and environs is presented. Field geological study of the area revealed that the area is underlain by Basement Complex rocks. The soils of the area are products of in situ weathering of the underlying basement rocks. Results of sieve analyses show that the soils at the gully sites have sorting values ranging between 0.42 and 2.3, coefficient of uniformity values ranging between 3.0 and10 , and coefficient of curvature values ranging between 0.2 and 1.3. These indicate that the soils are poorly to well sorted and well to poorly graded. The plasticity indices values ranges between 11.0 and 29 with a mean value of about 20 indicating moderate plasticity with slight dry strength and easily friable. Values of maximum dry density ranges between 1.83g/cm3 and 2.09g/cm3 at optimum moisture contents of between 7.4% and 11.3% revealing that the soils are generally loose. The hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity values as determined from statistical grain-size method ranges between 3.8×10-4 cm/s to 6.4×102cm/s and 3.8×10-2cm2/s to 9.6×104cm2 respectively. These indicate moderate seepage fluxes and adverse pore pressures and are thus erodible. From the results of the study, recommendations for erosion control such as; afforestation, construction of drainages, grouting and concrete rip-raps were suggested.

  • Sessions:
    Palaeontology and Palaeo-anthropology

    Time:

    Title: Benthic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and turnover across the Paleocene - Eocene boundary at Darb Gaga, Baris Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt: Paleoenvironmental implications.

    Mostafa H. El-Dawy
    Minia University, Egypt.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Mostafa H. El-Dawy
    Minia University, Egypt.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Mostafa H. El-Dawy
    Minia University, Egypt.

    We present high - resolution biostratigraphy and quantitative analyses for the Paleocene - Eocene benthic foraminifera assemblages at Darb Gaga area, Baris Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt, in order to infer its faunal turnover and paleoenvironmental conditions. The Paleocene - Eocene succession comprises of the Esna (subdivided from base upward into; El Hanadi, El Dababiya Quarry, Darb Gaga, and Abu Had members), and Thebes formations. Biostratigraphically, three benthic foraminiferal biozones are recognized and correlated with other associated planktonic foraminiferal ones. The P/E boundary lies at the lowermost part of the Dababiya Quarry Member (DQM), and composes mainly of laminated phosphatic shale with disseminated glauconitic grains. This member consists of five marker beds (no. 1-5) at the GSSP, while at Darb Gaga section, this boundary is represented only by the upper three beds (no. 3-5), whereas the lower two beds (no. 1, 2) are missing due to a hiatus. This hiatus may due to Syrian Arc Orogeny at the P/E boundary. Therefore, this boundary is characterized by the occurrence of a minor interzonal hiatus at P5/E1 zonal boundary. This hiatus is confirmed by the occurrence of glauconitic grains at base of DQM, absence of beds 1 and 2, and the abrupt faunal changes across the P/E boundary. A rapid extinction was occurred for benthic foraminiferal assemblages and started at the onset of the warming episode of Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum (IETM) interval, and led to the main Benthic Extinction Event (BEE), affecting ~ 8% of these assemblages. It happened suddenly at the latest Paleocene-earliest Eocene transition with an evidence of carbonate dissolution, suggesting that carbonate corrosion, oxygen deficiency of oceanic bottom waters, in addition to food supply changes and elevation of temperatures were the main causes of event. The dissolution was concomitant with the BEE, indicating that, acidity of bottom waters became corrosive during the main phase of extinction. This emphasized the rapid onset of IETM, which accompanied the dissolution interval leading to the main turnover and subsequently the occurrence of abundant agglutinated taxa (Acme of Haplophragmiodes). Afterwards, a recovery phase of benthic foraminifers is recorded directly above this interval and probably due to improved productivity and nutrient supply. Quantitative analyses of benthic foraminiferal assemblages at Darb Gaga section, suggest an outer shelf depth during the deposition of the Upper Paleocene and Lower Eocene of El Hanadi, DQ, and Darb Gaga members, tend to be shallower upward of the section (in Abu Had Member and Thebes Formation), with fluctuating other environmental conditions.

    Time:

    Title: The fossil records of Brachyura, Balanidae (Crustaceans) and fish (Osteichthyes + Chondrichthyes) from the Under Pliocene Kueichoulin Formation Taoyuan Daxi of the northwest region of Taiwan

    Shih-Wei Lee
    National Museum of Marine Science and Technology, Taiwan.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Shih-Wei Lee
    National Museum of Marine Science and Technology, Taiwan.

    Shih-Wei Lee has received a bachelor’s in biology at Tunghai University in Taichung, Taiwan; a master’s in Zoology at the University of Göttingen, Germany; and a Ph.D. in Geology and Paleontology at the University of Tübingen, Germany. He worked as a researcher in the State Museum of Natural History in Stuttgart, Germany.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Shih-Wei Lee
    National Museum of Marine Science and Technology, Taiwan.

    Crustacean fauna of Taiwan is abundant, composed of taxa of lobsters, crayfishes, shrimps, krill, woodlice as well as more than500 species crabs and 120 species of barnacles. However, fossil records are limited to mainly crab, there are huge number of fossil materials to be available and mostly well preserved. Comparable, barnacle fossils are rare. On the other side of vertebrate, fossil records fish’s are extremely rare in Taiwan. To this day, only the teeth of small sharks, fossil Fish otoliths, fish scales, spine and whole small fish’s bodies have been identified—mostly from the Under Pliocene Kueichoulin Formation Taoyuan Daxi and Chia-Yi Liuchungchi Formation of Taiwan. Daxi Fossil Lagerstätte shows clearly a marine sediment environment, abundant also in Mollusca, Echinoidea especially Sea urchins. The fossil record of whale and the symbiosis are reports, and is to days not its habitat. A collection from the past 30 years archived in the National Museum of Marine Science and Technology  (NMMST), Academia Sinica, and Chia-Yi Municipal Museum. This precious collection has not been classified scientifically, and a preliminary assessment indicated that the specimens fall under four to six species. The research was conducted on the Under Pliocene Kueichoulin Formation of Taoyuan Daxi, Chia-Yi Liuchungchi Formation and Keelung Nun-Nun Formation of Taiwan. The aim of this brief report is to present research on the barnacle fossil, including its basic morphology, taxonomy, geological strata and age, distribution, etc., and to facilitate follow-up in-depth study. The report also initiates discussions about the regional, ecological and environmental changes.

    Sessions:
    Soil Science

    Time:

    Title: Levels of trace metals (Cd, Pb, Co, Zn Cu and Ni) were determined in water and sediment from the Msunduzi River and its effects on an irrigated farmland

    Afsoon Kazerouni
    Rhodes University, South Africa.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Afsoon Kazerouni
    Rhodes University, South Africa.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Afsoon Kazerouni
    Rhodes University, South Africa.

    Surface water has been and is still being used for many purposes, which include drinking, irrigation, animal farming, recreation and serves as habitat to numerous organisms. The aesthetic properties of most rivers and streams have made them sites for tourist attraction and recreation. It have also served as sources of employment, particularly for the fishing industry. Generally, in most countries of the world, surface water is used as the main source of water for the provision of potable water after necessary treatment. The treatment costs for potable water production are reduced greatly when water of a desirable quality is used as a source. Therefore, freshwater sources like rivers and streams, need to be protected from contamination with benefits not limited to humans alone, but also to prevent environmental deterioration and reduction in biodiversity. Access to safe water is entrenched in South Africa’s constitution as a basic human right; yet, it has been estimated that 3.5 million people in South Africa do not have access to safe drinking water, and this problem is more pronounced in rural areas. Thus, many residents of the affected rural or disadvantaged communities depend largely on surface water for their domestic water needs. One of the issues of concern is that the quality of surface water has been plagued by several natural and anthropogenic activities with the contribution of humans outweighing those of natural origin. Unplanned urbanization and population growth are some of the factors that may be responsible for the pollution of water bodies. The easy accessibility of rivers for the disposal of domestic and industrial wastes has made them very susceptible to pollution, especially by anthropogenic activities. Among the most notorious water pollutants are heavy metals, which are a group of contaminants long detected as a threat to aquatic organisms and humans, even at trace concentrations. They are known for their toxicity and persistence in the environment. They also have the tendency to bio-accumulate in living tissues, such as fish, to concentrations that can compromise the normal physiological processes of these organisms, and this provides an introductory pathway into the human food chain. Poor river water and sediment quality can lead to stress and mortality of invertebrates and fish present in rivers. The use of metals polluted water for irrigation can cause the death of crops or interfere with the uptake of essential nutrients. Occurrence of these metals in vegetables and soil from a nearby farmland as a result of Levels of trace metals in water and sediment from Msunduzi River and its effects on an irrigated farmland irrigation with the river water was also investigated. Higher levels of Cd (0.038 ± 0.004 to 0.044 ± 0.003 mg/l) and Pb (0.021 ± 0.004 to 0.035 ± 0.001 mg/l) were found in the river water, which may be detrimental to the “health” of the aquatic ecosystem and the rural communities that utilise the river water for domestic purposes without any treatment. Some of these metals were also detected in the soil and vegetables cultivated on the farmland which indicates a possible contribution from the river water.

    Sessions:
    Issues in Global Warming and Climate Change

    Time:

    Title: Carbon capture and storage on circum-Antarctic seabeds in a changing climate

    David K A Barnes
    British Antarctic Survey, United Kingdom.

    Biography
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    Biography

    David K A Barnes
    British Antarctic Survey, United Kingdom.

    Dr. David Barnes is a marine ecologist at British Antarctic Survey, NERC and teaches at the University of Cambridge (UK). He has worked in polar marine science, focusing on continental shelf benthos, for 27 years and has published 240 scientific papers. Most recently, he is working on quantifying blue carbon in cold waters, it’s tempero-spatial variability and power as a negative feedback on climate change – on the Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition and NERC funded projects.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    David K A Barnes
    British Antarctic Survey, United Kingdom.

    Life on the seabed, on continental shelves around Antarctica, can be globally important in immobilizing organic and inorganic carbon. Although their turnover of carbon cycling is low compared with oceanographic carbon storage or water column pelagos (e.g. zooplankton), the storage, burial and thus potential for sequestration is high, but little understood or quantified to date. Carbon storage by benthic animals around West Antarctica’s continental shelves, estimated at 106 tonnes per year, has increased in response to climate change and shows seasonal, annual and between-region variation. Quantifying this variation should reduce error in CO2 pathway models. SubAntarctic island shelves are likely to be even more important benthic carbon stocks because of more considerable phytoplankton blooms, little or no sea ice and warmer sea temperatures than Antarctica (enabling faster meal processing time, and thus growth rates by benthos). Their potential as a carbon sink is almost unknown but new projects on the Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition (ACE) and ICEBERGs have been sampling these shelf benthos using bespoke camera landers, video and photo-equipped trawls and cores. These are enabling estimation of changes in intra and inter-shelf variability in benthos carbon storage. Growth models constructed from age structure of sampled species with growth check lines (e.g. bryozoans, bivalves, brachiopods and corals) enable carbon accumulation to be estimated across seasons and years. We are constructing seabed carbon capture and storage budgets in a rapidly changing part of the world that may represent one of the most important global negative feedbacks on climate change.

    Time:

    Title: Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells To Combat Climate Change

    Sam H. Y. Hsu
    City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Sam H. Y. Hsu
    City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

    Sam H. Y. Hsu’s research interests involve the material design, synthesis, processing, imaging, spectroscopy and solar energy application, aiming to explore fundamental properties and interactions of hybrid perovskite semiconductors and functional metallopolymer materials for developing efficient solar energy conversion processes. He has keen interests in photoinduced charge transfer processes, interfacial electron transfer, electrochemical hydrogen generation, and photoredox reactions for photovoltaics and solar fuel production. The investigations between material phenomena rely heavily on concepts and techniques of material and physical engineering, consisting of photophysics, electrochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, scanning photoelectrochemical microscopy imaging, ultrafast transient absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence spectra.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Sam H. Y. Hsu
    City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

    A variety of PbI2/MAPbI3 perovskites were prepared and investigated by a rapid screening technique utilizing a modified scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) in order to determine how excess PbI2 affects its photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties. An optimum ratio of 2.5% PbI2/MAPbI3 was found to enhance photocurrent over pristine MAPbI3 on a spot array electrode under irradiation. With bulk films of various PbI2/MAPbI3 composites prepared by a spin-coating technique of mixed precursors and a one-step annealing process, the 2.5% PbI2/MAPbI3 produced an increases photocurrent density compared to pristine MAPbI3 for 2mM benzoquinone (BQ) reduction at − 0.4 V vs Fc/Fc+. As a result of the relatively high quantum yield of MAPbI3, a time-resolved photoluminescence quenching experiment could be applied to determine electron-hole diffusion coefficients and diffusion lengths of PbI2/MAPbI3 composites, respectively. The diffusion coefficients combined with the exciton lifetime of the pristine 2.5% PbI2/MAPbI3 (τPL = 103.3 ns) give the electron and hole exciton diffusion lengths, ~ 300 nm. Thus, the 2.5% PbI2/MAPbI3 led to an approximately 3.0-fold increase in the diffusion length compared to a previous report of ~ 100 nm for the pristine MAPbI3 perovskite. We then demonstrated that the efficiency of liquid-junction solar cells for 2.5% excess PbI2 of p-MAPbI3 was improved from 6.0% to 7.3%.

    Time:

    Title: Natural gas – its role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the fossil energy industry

    Dag Nummedal
    Colorado School of Mines, USA.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Dag Nummedal
    Colorado School of Mines, USA.

    Dag Nummedal is director of the Colorado Energy Research Institute at the Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO. CERI was established by an act of the Colorado legislature for the purpose of coordinating energy research across disciplinary boundaries and between the many universities and research institutions in Colorado. CERI began operations on July 1, 2004. The initial programs are focused on issues in carbon sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, coal bed methane, oil shale research, and selected themes in sustainable energy and energy education.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Dag Nummedal
    Colorado School of Mines, USA.

    The rapid growth in use of natural gas in electric power generation has brought about significant decrease in the national CO2 emissions rates in the United States (since 2008) and China (since 2014). This is a welcome development, and points to pathways for accelerated decline in the rate of global warming; with an attendant global diversification in energy supply. Further global shift from coal to natural gas for electric power generation would accelerate this welcoming trend, and linked with rapid growth in renewable energy could move the world towards meeting the ambitious “roadmap for rapid decarbonization” generated during the UN COP 21 meeting in Paris in December 2015. The switch from coal to gas, followed by rapid increases in energy efficiency, the phase-out of the internal combustion engine, use of renewable fuels, and electrification of transport, combined with bioenergy and carbon capture and sequestration could potentially put the world on a path to less than 2oC warming. Research and development work in many parts of the world is also addressing the need to reduce the other big greenhouse gas from the fossil energy industry, methane, by engaging in major R&D projects to quantify the magnitudes and sources of its release, from both man-made and natural sources. In particular, this presentation will focus on a recently completed integrated set of airborne and ground-based measurements on methane leakage from a large US natural gas field. New large-scale experimental testing facilities are also under development, designed to more precisely document the pathways of methane from natural gas well, buried pipelines, through the many compressors, storage tanks and gathering and transmission pipelines that make up the global natural gas industry. Automated sensors will further reduce inadvertent, unexpected and previously undetected natural gas leaks as soon as they occur, further helping natural gas become an even cleaner form of fossil energy. These rapid technology developments will further help make natural gas the “bridge fuel” to a low-emissions energy future, which is increasingly anticipated and expected.

    Time:

    Title: Atmospheric toxic gases and their probable impacts on public health

    Sharmeen Jahan
    Eden Women College, Bangladesh.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Sharmeen Jahan
    Eden Women College, Bangladesh.

    Dr. Sharmeen Jahan is a Assistant Professor of Dept. of Geography & Environment, Eden Women College, Dhaka, Bangladesh.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Sharmeen Jahan
    Eden Women College, Bangladesh.

    Bangladesh ranked fourth among 91 countries with the worst urban air quality in the latest air pollution monitoring report by the World Health Organization. Data from the National Institute of Diseases of the Chest and Hospital shows that nearly seven million Bangladeshis suffer from asthma and more than half of them are children. In Dhaka alone, an estimated 15,000 premature deaths, as well as several million cases of pulmonary, respiratory and neurological illness are attributed to poor air quality. Bangladesh is lacking systematic ambient air quality measurements and time series data though the reports based on sporadic analysis indicate worsening air pollution in particular, in cities with heavy traffic movement and congestion, industrial and brick-kiln actives and solid waste management practices. The level of air pollution and the effects on human health. With this background atmospheric toxic gas concentrations namely, O3, CO, SO2, TVOC, NO, NO2, H2S, NH3, PH3 in the ambient air were measured in some selected hot spots in Dhaka city between 2009 and 2011. The results were compared with some selected peri-urban, semi-urban, rural areas and St. Martin’s Island at the Bay of Bengal as base-line. Among the toxic gases concentration of CO 14818 µg/m3, NO 178 µg/m3 and NO2 264 µg/m3 and SO2 239 µg/m3 were measured at different hot spots in Dhaka city appeared to be very high and exceeded the limit values suggested by the WHO, 2005 (CO 5000 µg/m3), SO2 (80 µg/m3), NO and NO2 (120 µg/m3). The highest level of CO 14818 µg/m3, TVOC 15881 µg/m3 , NO 178 µg/m3 and NO2 264 µg/m3 were measured for Farm gate; SO2 239 µg/m3, H2S 113 µg/m3, NH3 121 µg/m3, PH3 118 µg/m3 were also measured for Amin Bazaar in Dhaka city during three consecutive years. Elevated concentrations of O3 47 µg/m3 were also measured in Dhaka city however, still within the safe limit WHO, 2005 (100 µg/m3). Significant positive correlation were obtained (r = 0.65) between CO and NO and (r = 0.84) between CO and PH3 in the present investigation. A strong negative correlation (r = - 0.72) between O3 and TVOC, (r = - 0.70) between NO and TVOC and (r = - 0.50) between TVOC and SO2 were obtained in the present investigation. Significant level of diurnal and seasonal variations of toxic gases were also observed. A survey on human health using structured questionnaire reveal that the people in Dhaka city are experiencing health problems like breathing problem, eye-irritation, cough, asthma, vomiting, headache in particular, women and children appears to be the mostly affected. More than 40 percent women and children interviewed in Dhaka city reported to have been suffering from eye-irritation, cough, asthma, vomiting, headache and other respiratory problem. Effects on human health with any of the particular toxic gases measured could be established.

    Sessions:
    Petroleum Geology

    Time:

    Title: Machine Learning Techniques for Quantitative Seismic Interpretation. A case of study from Fort Worth Basin, Texas-US

    David Prado
    University of Oklahoma, USA.

    Biography
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    Biography

    David Prado
    University of Oklahoma, USA.

    David Prado has a 10 years’ experience in the energy industry mainly working in exploration and development of unconventional reservoirs (Shales and Coal Bed Methane) with Drummond LTD and EBX Group in Cesar-Rancheria Basin, Colombia. Currently he is focusing on conventional and unconventional seismic reservoir characterization projects in United States, New Zealand, Australia, and Latin America with Impact Geophysical Solutions. Mr Prado earned a M.Sc. in Geology/Geophysics from the University of Oklahoma, and a B.Sc. in Geology from the National University of Colombia. He is a member of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists and the Society of Exploration Geophysicists.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    David Prado
    University of Oklahoma, USA.

    In this research, we use Machine Learning assisted quantitative seismic interpretation to uncover the depositional history and 3D seismic expression of the Desmoinesian Lower Strawn Formation, in Fort Worth Basin-Texas, described by Van-wagoner (1975), Gun (1979) and Pranter (1989) as a turbidite / submarine fan complex. For this purpose, a post-stack 3D seismic volume was conditioned to structural oriented filtering and time-frequency domain-based spectral balancing from which a set of attributes were extracted, including P-impedance, and other elastic attributes that were computed once S-impedance was predicted. After data conditioning, a suite of candidate attributes was computed. The next “exploratory data analysis” step involved comparing candidate attributes to areas where well control showed the desired sand to be present or absent. Analysis showed that several of the eight texture attributes that measure the lateral homogeneity, entropy, and other properties of the reflector exhibited value. To simplify the classification, these eight measures were reduced into one represented by the first principal component. The resulting five attributes used in classification were P-impedance, precondition seismic amplitude, peak spectral frequency (from the time-frequency analysis), the first principal component of the eight texture attributes, and the relative stratal location. The same analyses were performed to simplify ten elastic attributes. Five different classification techniques (Unsupervised: K-means clustering analysis, Self-organizing Maps (SOM), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Generative Topographic Maps (GTM); and supervised: Principal Support Vector Machines (PSVM)) were evaluated with the goal of geometrically differentiating sand bodies and architectural elements present along the Lower Strawn. The results show that some classification techniques can highlight architectural elements better than others. Although K-means and GTM were able to highlight possible channels, SOM, and PSVM, were able to discriminate more subtle facies changes along a specific area (sinuous sand bars, fans, and possible crevasse splays features).

    Time:

    Title: Multi-Mineral Petrophysical evaluation of sandstone reservoirs of selected wells of the Orange Basin Offshore South Africa

    Mimonitu Opuwari
    University of the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Mimonitu Opuwari
    University of the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Dr Mimonitu Opuwari is a senior lecturer in Petroleum Geology and Director of Taught MSc in Petroleum Geosciences at the University of the Western Cape South Africa. He has about ten years research experiences in onshore and offshore basins of South Africa. Dr Opuwari is a visiting scientist at the Charney School of marine Geosciences University of Haifa Israel and currently Africa region secretary of AAPG.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Mimonitu Opuwari
    University of the Western Cape, South Africa.

    The Orange Basin is a volcanic passive margin that forms part of the south-western basins as a result of the breakup of South America and Africa in Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. This paper is focused on the distribution and characterization of the Albian deltaic sands across the field. We integrate geophysical and geological data in the Albian age sandstone reservoirs for our evaluation. Results obtained from core description, wireline log, and cluster analyses produced five distinct clusters or rock types and as predicted the result also revealed that quartz overgrowths are the dominant cement across the Albian age sandstone reservoirs. Quartz precipitation most likely resulted from the circulation of waters during sediment compaction. Petrofacies correlated well with hydrocarbon flow zone indicators and lithofacies. The area is generally regarded as shaly sandstones due to relatively high volume of shale and thus we used shaly-sand models for our evaluations. Although these Albian age sandstones are highly cemented with silica, porosities in most reservoir intervals range between 16% and 24%. These fairly good porosity values are mostly primary porosities protected from quartz-overgrowth by chlorite rims. Permeabilities are generally low due to dominant chlorite rims; therefore we used different models for estimation of permeability and permeability from regression analyses best correlate with our data. Generally low resistivity log readings over most hydrocarbon bearing zones were observed due to the presence of chlorite. We have developed a robust static reservoir model that would reduce uncertainties for future petrophysical evaluation in sandstone reservoirs.

    Time:

    Title: Analysis of potential zone of carbonate reservoir distribution based on seismic simultaneous inversion and lambda-mu rho attributes

    Tresna Hanjani Kulsum
    Bandung Institute Technology, Indonesia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Tresna Hanjani Kulsum
    Bandung Institute Technology, Indonesia.

    Tresna Hanjani Kulsum is a master candidate (Grants from Indonesian Government) in Geophysical Engineering Department, Bandung Institute Technology, Indonesia. She received B.Eng (2015) in Geophysical Engineering from University of Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Yogyakarta, Indonesia.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Tresna Hanjani Kulsum
    Bandung Institute Technology, Indonesia.

    Hydrocarbon exploration is a process do inding Oil and gas reserve. It is conducted in order to imaging subsurface condition, Therefore It can Find trap or the presence of hydrocarbon. Carbonate reservoirs in Mentawa Members of the Minahaki Formation Banggai Basin is the target in this research. Based on well data, carbonat reservoir provened gas thus it is imperative to analyze the distribution of the potential reservoir in the study area. Study of Reservoir characterization using conventional seismic data will be difficult because the seismic data only indicates the boundary between the layers which have impedance contrast. To overcome these problems, the inversion process must be completed. Inversion method used in this research is simultaneous inversion. This inversion use a partial stack that is inverted simultaneously to obtain the elastic parameters of rock such as, P-impedance, S-impedance and density directly. The results of the simultaneous inversion derived into Lambda-rho and Mu-rho in term of the reservoar and fluids identification. This study is focused on tight and porous carbonat reservoir. Tight carbonate has a relatively higher of P-impedance, S-impedance and density than porous carbonate reservoir. The existence of the gas can be identified based on lambda-rho value which is has very small. And the reservoir can be identified base on mu-rho value which is more than 30 ((GPa)*(g/cc)) is categorized as a tight carbonate and less than 30 ((GPa)*(g/cc)) is categorized as a porous carbonate.

    Time:

    Title: High-resolution 3-d stochastic mapping of the lithofacies within the multi-reservoirs upper Bentiu member; implication of a rifted stratigraphic settings

    Mohammed Jabir
    University of Khartoum, Sudan.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Mohammed Jabir
    University of Khartoum, Sudan.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Mohammed Jabir
    University of Khartoum, Sudan.

    The Upper member of Late-Cretaceous Bentiu Formation represents a high prolific multi-reservoirs interval that deposited in a complex stratigraphic and tectonic settings. This complexity resulted from three rifting stages occurred in the basin. This study aims to establish 3-D geocellular stochastic models of the lithofacies to characterize the reservoir geometries and potentiality within the Upper Bentiu Member in the NE part of Muglad Rift Basin. A comprehensive lithofacies classification, structural and stochastic modeling workflow were used to deliver this study objectives. The lithofacies prevailed in the study area were determined based on core examination. However, a model-based cluster analysis was used to generate the lithofacies from the available 20 wells. Accordingly, three distinctive lithofacies were identified; medium to coarse sandstone, fine to silty sandstone and shale/claystone. The structural framework of this member in the studied area indicates clear control of the rifting. This structural model reviled a dome-like structure that elongated in a north-south direction along the major fault and intersected by five minor faults mainly in the NW-SW direction. Four locally fining-upward lithological cycles were observed from the 3-D stochastic simulation. Each of these cycles is dominated by medium to coarse sandstone lithofacies at the bottom and capped with shale/claystone lithofacies. The clear vertical staking of the lithological cycles and zones is distorted laterally due to the rifting. These findings increase the current knowledge of the reservoir geometries and reservoir potentiality, which is expected to provide new insight into the petroleum exploration and future development of the studied member

    Sessions:
    Geochemistry and Economic Potential of Rocks

    Time:

    Title: Geochemistry, Radioactive element distribution and Rare-metal Mineralization in A-type granites of Khanak and Devsar area, Bhiwani, Southwestern Haryana, India

    Naresh Kumar
    Kurukshetra University, India.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Naresh Kumar
    Kurukshetra University, India.

    Dr. Naresh Kumar is Assistant Professor, Department of Geology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India. He did his M.Sc. (Applied Geology) in 2006 and Ph.D in 2009 and has a specialization in Igneous Petrology & geochemistry and groundwater geochemistry. He has published more than 10 research papers in reputed international/national journals. He has been awarded for best paper presentation in international conference of geology held at Toronto, Canada on 15-16 June, 2017.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Naresh Kumar
    Kurukshetra University, India.

    The present study discussed about the geochemistry, Radioactive element distribution and Rare-metal Mineralization potential in granitic rocks of Khanak and Devsar areas in southwestern Haryana which is a part of Neoproterozoic Malani Igneous Suite (MIS) (55000 sq. km) in Northwestern Indian Shield. Granites from the studied areas are categorized as grey, grayish green and pink. Khanak granites consist of quartz, k-feldspar, plagioclase and biotite as essential minerals and hematite, zircon, annite, monazite & rutile as accessory minerals. In Devsar granites, plagioclase is replaced by perthite and occurs as dominantly. Geochemically, they show the enrichments in SiO2, Na2O+K2O, Fe/Mg, Rb, Zr, Y and and AI (Agpaitic Index) (ranges from 0.10 to 1.18) and depletion in MgO, CaO, P, Ti, Ni, Cr and V indicate their A-type affinity which is very similar to the A-type granites of MIS. Devsar Grayish green & grey granites and Khanak pink granites show high heat production (HP) 9.68 & 11.70 and 16.53μWm-3 and total Heat Generation Unit (HGU) i.e. 23.04 & 27.86 and 39.37 respectively. Overall, they have much a higher values of HP and HGU than the average value of continental crust (3.8 HGU), which imply a possible linear relationship among the surface heat flow and crustal heat generation in the rocks of MIS. The enrichment of Zr, Nb and high Zr/Rb ratio in the rocks indicate Nb-Sn-W mineralization in studied areas. Their major, trace and REE characteristics along with the use of various discrimination schemes reveled their correspondence to magma derived from crustal origin.

    Time:

    Title: Review Of Recent Developments In The Petrogenesis And Evolution Of Magma, And Effects On Hydrocarbon Maturation, Southern Benue Trough, Nigeria

    V. U. Ukaegbu
    University Of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Biography
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    Biography

    V. U. Ukaegbu
    University Of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Professor Victor U. Ukaegbu was born in 1960, at Uturu in Abia State of Nigeria. He had his B.Sc. M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Geology between University of Port Harcourt and University of Jos, Nigeria. He is presently a Professor of Geology. He has served the University as both Ag. Head of Department, and Dean of Faculty. He is External Examiner to several Universities in Nigeria. His areas of research interest are Petrology, Geochemistry and Mineral Exploration. He has over sixty publications. He is a member of geological professional bodies, a Resource Person to the Nigeria Geological Survey Agency.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    V. U. Ukaegbu
    University Of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    The Benue Trough of Nigeria is a product of two-stage rifting during the separation of South America from Africa in the Cretaceous times. Each stage of the two rifts was terminated by a deformation trending NE-SW; first in the Cenomanian and second in the Santonian times. Shales of the Asu River Group were deposited during the rifting that preceded the Cenomanian deformation, while the Ezeaku Formation was deposited during the second phase of the rifting leading to the final separation of South America from Africa and the second and final deformation in the Santonian times. Nkporo Shales were deposited after the second deformation episode. Series of magmatism intruded the shales of the Asu River Group (as indicated by inclusions of shale fragments in the pyroclastics) along the deformation axis marked by the trend of the Abakaliki anticlinorium. Intermediate to mafic intrusive and extrusive rocks consisting of dioritic rocks (SiO2, av. 58%), dolerites (SiO2, av. 47%) and pyroclastic ignimbrites (SiO2, av. 45%), which form domal to lenticular relief structures, were products of the magmatism in the Trough. The rocks are alkali-rich with the main phenocrysts as plagioclase, augite, olivine, iron ores in the dolerites and pyroclastics, and biotite, hornblende and quartz in the diorites. Petrological and geochemical characteristics of the rocks suggest fractionation from a common source. Partial melting mechanisms and differentiation of basaltic pile of alkaline affinity beneath continental rift zones appear to explain the compositional differences between these rock suites in the southern Benue Trough. The magmatism impacted high maturity on the source sediments due to thermal effect. Total organic carbon contents of the mudrock inclusions in the pyroclastics range from 0.60%wt-0.86%wt. Since field relations of the rocks suggest that the intrusions postdate the deposition of the host Asu River Group, and, therefore, not primarily related to the initial rift development in the Trough, it is apparent that prior to the eruption, there was an initial shaly source rock with high organic carbon content, which got cooked during the eruption, thereby reducing the source quality of the rocks. Thus, the heat from the igneous intrusions raised the temperature of the source rocks above the oil window limit, and therefore inhibited the preservation of the essential constituents of the petroleum in the shales within the southern Benue Trough

    Sessions:
    Exploration and Exploitation of Strategic Metal Deposits

    Time:

    Title: Future Exploitation Of The North Leader Conglomerate At No: 5 Shaft Of Blyvooruitzicht Gold Mine, South Africa

    Ntiyiso Ally Mahlaule
    University of Venda, South Africa.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Ntiyiso Ally Mahlaule
    University of Venda, South Africa.

    Mr. N.A Mahlaule matriculated at Mahwahwa high school in 1997, now he holds Masters of Earth Science in Mining and Environmental Geology from University of Venda and he is currently pursuing his Doctor of philosophy in geology. He started his career as a Learner Ventilation Official at Kloof Gold Mine, through Junior Geologist position at Driefontein Gold Mine, acting Senior Geologist, Senior Geologist and Resource Geologist at Blyvoouitzicht Gold Mine and Femcotech consulting respectively. He is currently working as a Lecturer at University of Venda. Block modeling, mineral resource modeling and estimation, resource calculation and reporting, mineral resource evaluation, mining and exploration geology, economic geology, structural geology, environmental geology and medical geology.



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    Abstract

    Ntiyiso Ally Mahlaule
    University of Venda, South Africa.

    Blyvooruitzicht Gold Mine (BGM) has been established within the West Wits Line of the Witwatersrand Basin. There are three renowned auriferous horizons at BGM such as North Leader (NL), Carbon Leader (CL) and Middelvlei (MR). Massive gold exploitations have been conducted from CL and MR using both longwall and scattered mining methods respectively. As for NL conglomerate, no mining activities have taken place as yet and this was impeded by the findings from previous studies that had shown that gold grades were generally less than 0.5 g/t. Recent studies were conducted on NL based on drillholes and development sampling and the results have revealed great potentials that warrant future exploitation. BGM employed scattered mining method for stope areas with erratic gold values such as those of the Middelvlei reef. The introduction of scattered mining method has resulted in unacceptably high stress levels and Energy Release Rates (ERR) at BGM. BGM called for a more amenable mining method due to highly inconsistent gold grades as well as the presence of multiple geological anomalies. The purpose of the study was to establish a mining method suitable for exploitation of the NL conglomerate, considering the erratic nature of the reef. The methods used were diamond drilling, core logging, core sampling, development sampling (bulk sampling), fire assay and inverse distance of power using Datamine Studio 3.21. Results from the study conducted showed erratic trend with high gold values being in association with carbon seams and fine pyrite. Sequential grid mining method was suggested for exploitation of this ore body due to erratic nature of the grades as well as the safety of this method. The proposed mining method is envisaged to provide regional support on stabilizing pillars and to serve as bracket pillars to support major geological structures, hence keeping ERR and Average Pillar Support(APS) within allowable levels.

    Time:

    Title: Present Copper Mines in Khetri - Real Wealth Still Uncovered

    Manmohan Shukla
    Barkatulla University, India.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Manmohan Shukla
    Barkatulla University, India.

    Passing out in 1978 and after a brief stint as university lecturer, Dr. Manmohan Kumar Shukla, joined the Government of Madhya Pradesh (India) as Assistant Geologist (1980-84) and deputed to UNDP for Gold and Tin Exploration campaigns in the then undivided Madhya Pradesh. He has worked in all the major Indian copper deposits in different capacities during his tenure in Hindustan Copper Limited (1984-2015). Extensively traveled in India and abroad and having written and edited number of papers, reports and articles, rising through corporate ladder, retired in November 2015 as Dy. General Manager. Presently associated as Hon Faculty with the Department of Earth Sciences, Barkatulla University, Bhopal, India.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Manmohan Shukla
    Barkatulla University, India.

    Since independence, the Indian mining sector has shown a pronounced growth in the mineral production both in terms of quantity and value. The copper mining began in sixties over the famous Khetri Copper Belt (KCB) in western Indian state of Rajasthan and brought India on the world copper map. Tens of million tonnes of copper ore have been mined since then and mining is still going on. Such mammoth mining operations were termed a tip of an iceberg by none other than late Dr Desh Bandhu Sikka, a legendary explorer and one of the chief architects of Khetri mining sector during his brief visit in 1992 when copper mines in KCB then were in the prime of their youth with booming production and rising profitability. While nostalgically recollecting his past work and traverses in the area, he confidently said during the informal talks that the real mineral wealth was yet to be uncovered…! With eyes blinking, the great octogenarian explorer was clearly pointing to the presence of favorable geological environments in KCB that could yield economically viable resources. Another 25 years have passed since then and, however belated, it calls for the concerted efforts to undertake specific exploration campaigns. Increased exploration investment is advisable in KCB since risk element is not that high, the Belt being geologically well known in the last 100 years and having been tested through mine production in the last more than 50 years. This would entail new investments leading to further development of the area. The paper stresses for a sustainable mining through sustained geological explorations taken up systematically and more than that, willingly.

    Sessions:
    Surface and Borehole Geophysics

    Time:

    Title: Radon monitoring in deep boreholes, determination of its vertical velocity within the porous media, the feasibility to using radon as an earthquake precursor, and the mutual relation with CO2 at depth

    Hovav Zafrir
    Geological Survey of Israel, Israel.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Hovav Zafrir
    Geological Survey of Israel, Israel.

    Dr. Hovav Zafrir is a senior nuclear geophysicist that served for more than 30 years with Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne, Israel, continuing his career as an emeritus at The Geological Survey of Israel, since 2004. His diverse experience includes geophysical investigations that required the development of state of the art laboratory and field technologies. He headed a variety of projects related to the development of sensors and technologies as it applies to nuclear material analysis, mineral exploration, earth science, and environmental monitoring. These projects included development of hardware, software and their integration into remote air, ground and marine vehicles.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Hovav Zafrir
    Geological Survey of Israel, Israel.

    A novel technique utilizing simultaneous radon monitoring by gamma and alpha detectors to differentiate between the radon climatic driving forces and others has been used for deep subsurface investigation. Detailed long-term monitoring served as a proxy for studying radon movement within deep subsurface, as well as for analyzing the effect of various parameters on the radon transport pattern. The capability to isolate, characterize and eliminate the impact of tectonic driving forces on radon temporal behavior, was proved by the first installed system at Sde-Eliezer site on the Dead Sea Fault Zone in Northern Israel (Zafrir et al., 2016). The achievements of the investigation are: a) Determination, for the first time, of the radon movement velocity within rock layers at depths of several tens of meters, namely, 25 m per hour on average; b) Distinguishing between the diurnal and semi-diurnal periodical effect of the ambient temperature and pressure on the radon temporal spectrum; c) Identification of a radon random pre-seismic anomaly preceding the Nuweiba, M 5.5 earthquake of 27 June 2015 that occurred within Dead Sea Fault Zone, 450 km away from the radon monitoring station. This phenomenon repeats itself on preceding by 12 hours the next Nuweiba M 5.1 earthquake, of 16 May 2016, and preceding by 48 hours an M 4.4 earthquake of 25 July 2016 which occurred in Palmira, Syria, 300 km away from the radon station. d) Preliminary results from a parallel measurement of CO2 and radon at depth showed similar effect of the climatic driving forces.

    Time:

    Title: Evaluation And Prospect Identification Of -Ose- Field In The Niger Delta,Nigeria Using Geophysical Well Log Data

    Aigbedion Isaac
    Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Aigbedion Isaac
    Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria.

    Isaac Aigbedion, is a Professor of Exploration Geophysics with specializations and interests in exploration geophysics, Reservoir Engineering, Mineral exploration and Environmental hazards .He acquired his postgraduate training in these areas from University of Benin, Benin City, Bendel State University, Ekpoma and HoT Engineering Austria. He has taught them for over 25 years in Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State. Professor Aigbedion Isaac was the Dean of Students Ambrose Alli University, Ekopma (2010- 2016). In 2005, he estimated the quantum of marble deposits for Edo State government for the acquisition of a quarry lease. He was also the Director of the Industrial Training Unit, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma (2007- 2010). He is well published with over Forty (40) geophysics articles in international and local journal to his credit.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Aigbedion Isaac
    Ambrose Alli University, Nigeria.

    Well logging data were used in the identification of reservoirs and determination of petrophysical parameters and hydrocarbon presence using the Petro Tech soft ware in the “OSE”field, Niger Delta-Nigeria. Two major lithologies and reservoirs were delineated from the well logs. Porosity values obtained from density log are found to be within the range of 27 to 30 % , indicating the reservoirs have very good porosities in the area of study, while their Permeabilities range from 230 to 2500md. The resistivity index values obtained for each reservoir unit in combination with the water saturation were used to confirm the presence of hydrocarbon in these reservoirs. The results of the research show that the “OSE”field has a good hydrocarbon potential. It is recommended that wells be drilled to target the new prospects which will improve the hydrocarbon reserves in Nigeria.

    Sessions:
    Poster Presentations

    Time:

    Title: Geology of Muglad Rift Basin of Interior Sudan

    Hassan Ahmed
    University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Hassan Ahmed
    University of Ibadan, Nigeria.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Hassan Ahmed
    University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

    The Muglad rift basin of interior Sudan is an integral part of the WCARS. It has undergone a polyphase development which has resulted in three major phases of extension with intervening periods (unconformities) when uplift and erosion or non-deposition have taken place. The depositional environment is nonmarine environment ranging from fluvial to lacustrine. The basin has probably undergone periods of transtensional deformation from the rhomb fault geometry seen in the basin. Changes in plate motions have been recorded in great detail by the stratigraphy and fault geometries within the basin and the contiguous basins. The rift basin has commercial reserve of petroleum, with both Cretaceous and Tertiary petroleum systems active. The major exploration risk is the lateral seal and locally the effect of the tectonic rejuvenation as well as tectonic inversion. In some, oilfields the volcanic rocks constitute a major challenge to seismic imaging and interpretation.

    Time:

    Title: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of micronized limestone for glass industry

    Emy Fuffa
    University of Camerino, Italy.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Emy Fuffa
    University of Camerino, Italy.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Emy Fuffa
    University of Camerino, Italy.

    The purposes of this work is to quantify and evaluate the environmental and energy performance (materials used in the processing), resulting from the entire life cycle of the micronized limestone, as well as comprehend the life stages of the production process. Using 3 years of observations and studies through the methodology of the life cycle, I will focuse on the environmental impact and energy consumption. The stages of this process will include: -Quarry (place where the limestone "born"). - Identification of the type of limestone through various laboratory tests to find out the composition (% limestone). -Processing of limestone (Noise abatement, dust and noise) and transport of materials (Impact on traffic) outside the construction site. Depending on its composition, the limestone will be used for various purposes: for the industry of infrastructure and construction (inert); for the defense of the coast and rivers (cyclopic boulders); for the food and pharmaceutical industries. - Sale and transport of the material with mechanical means (Impact on traffic). - Disposal. At the end of its life cycle, taking into account existing legislation, it can be reused in the building industry or taken to a recycling plant. As it regards the cyclopic boulders can be crushed and then become inert and follows the process described above or they can be reused. For that regards the limestone used in the pharmaceutical industry and in the food industries his disposal process will be carried out by humans. The micronized limestone can also be used for the manufacture of glass by lowering the melting point of the silica sand (material "overglaze" par excellence, bearer of silica able to realize the lattice in disordered amorphous character and characterized in that the glassy structure) from 2000 ° C approximately to values close to 1500 ° C by the addition of "fluxing" elements such as soda and potash. There are numerous applications of lime products also in the chemical industry and process. The use of lime as a raw material has the purpose of making available calcium in the chemical synthesis reactions (organic and inorganic salts) and, given its strong base function, for adjusting the pH of the reaction medium or by the neutralization total wastewaters acids separated from the main product. The lime-based materials, in fact, play an important role in the production of calcium phosphate, calcium acetate, calcium stearate, calcium tartarato, the calcium citrate, calcium benzoate, calcium lactate, etc.. Thus, we are going to analyze all the possible environmental impacts that will arise during the lifetime of the micronized limestone. It includes assessing the impacts and problems related to the quarry through the different ecological impact present during the life cycle of the limestone.

    Time:

    Title: Political agenda setting in the strategic delta planning of the Mekong Delta -converging views or political heritage induced divergence

    Vo Thi Minh Hoang
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Vo Thi Minh Hoang
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.

    She have experienced 7 years being a lecturer at the University of Science, Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City and 2 years being a researcher at the Center of Water Management and Adapting to Climate Change (WACC) – Vietnam National University. Currently, she is a PhD candidate who works as a part of UDW (Urbanizing delta of the Word) – Integrated project on “Strengthening strategic delta planning process in the Netherlands, Bangladesh, Vietnam and beyond”, mainly based on Wageningen University. Her PhD research will focusing on the changes in approaches and related innovative solutions to flood management in long-term Mekong delta processes.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Vo Thi Minh Hoang
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.

    The aim of this paper is via the lens of ‘agenda setting’ to explore the degree of convergence/divergence between the development agendas for the Mekong Delta as prevalent among key stakeholder groups and as embedded within the recent developed Mekong Delta Plan (MDP). The MDP sets out a strategic agenda for the development choices of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) that is economic attractive, climate adaptive and environmental sustainable. This agenda at times consciously and explicitly departs from historic trends and current practices and practically explores the options and opportunities available within the delta to confront the challenges imposed by climate change and economic uncertainty. In order to trace historical embeddedness and institutional and policy inertia, a brief historical analysis of development trajectories is conducted against which stakeholders’ expressed goals can be reflected. Four groups have been discerned and approached: (1) policy-makers; (2) national experts; (3) practitioners; (4) international donors. Whereas a clear convergence of agendas between stakeholders’ agendas and the MDP can be discerned, these are certainly not uniform and to the same degree across all stakeholders - nuanceations and divergences can be found across all groups, divergence is also clearly prevalent. The latter can be traced to institutional affiliation and geographical position (situated in or outside the delta). As far as strategic delta planning and political agenda setting are concerned, the MDP has certainly made inroads in aligning political development agendas, but this is not uniform and across the board, and as such not a done deal yet.

    Time:

    Title: The Macroseismic Survey Of The M4.6, 2017 Stilfontein Earthquake

    Tebogo Pule
    Council for Geoscience, South Africa.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Tebogo Pule
    Council for Geoscience, South Africa.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Tebogo Pule
    Council for Geoscience, South Africa.

    On 3 April 2017 an earthquake of local magnitude ML = 4.6 occurred in the Stilfontein area in the North West Province, South Africa. Using the cluster network of strong motion seismograph stations located in the Klerksdorp-Orkney-Stilfontein-Hartbeesfontein (KOSH) area, the event records were analyzed and location distributed by the Council for Geoscience (CGS). A total of 213 aftershocks of the event were also recorded and are found to plot in a NE-SW line, which follows the orientation of shallow faults in the region. The earthquake shaking was felt in the closest provinces of South Africa, but no damage has been reported. In response to the earthquake, the CGS sent out a team of scientists to further assess the effects of the event in the community by interviewing members of the public and completing questionnaires. A total of 177 questionnaires were collected. Analysis of the collected macroseismic data produced 35 intensity data points which showed that a maximum intensity of VI according to the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale was experienced in communities located close to the epicentral area.

    Time:

    Title: A study was conducted to characterize Modjo tannery effluent (wastewater) and determine its impact on the Modjo River using some physicochemical parameters

    Yonatan Garkebo Doyoro
    Adama Science and Technology University, Ethiopia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Yonatan Garkebo Doyoro
    Adama Science and Technology University, Ethiopia.

    Yonatan Garkebo Doyoro, from Adama Science and Technology University, Ethiopia. At this time, he is working as full lecturer in the Applied Geology department. He was awarded B.Sc degree in Applied Geology & MSc in Exploration Geophysics from Mekelle & Addis Ababa University, respectively.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Yonatan Garkebo Doyoro
    Adama Science and Technology University, Ethiopia.

    A study was conducted to characterize Modjo tannery effluent (wastewater) and determine its impact on the Modjo River using some physicochemical parameters. Accordingly, three tannery wastewater samples along wastewater channel at different distances have been taken and three river water samples (one upstream and two downstream) were collected along the river to determine its impact on the river. The samples have been analyzed for temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solid (TSS), chloride(Cl-), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total ammonia (as N), total nitrogen, total phosphorus and sulphide. The result of tannery wastewater showed that the values of temperature, pH, EC, TDS, TSS, Cl-, BOD5, COD, total ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and sulphide along the wastewater channel ranged from 26.97 to 24.93°C, 9.33 to 8.33, 15670.00 to 14496.67 mgL-1, 9370.00 to 8723.33 mgL-1, 4979.33 to 2647.67 mgL-1, 6111.67 to 5555.78 mgL-1 960.34 to 842.00 mgL-1, 2011.00 to 1950.75 mgL-1, 520.44 to 401.23 mgL-1, 720.46 to 665.43 mgL-1, 30.12 to 19.55 mgL-1 and 35.56 to 21.05 mgL-1 respectively. And most of the effluent characteristics except pH and temperature were beyond the provisional discharge limit of tannery effluent to water body set by the Ethiopian Environmental Protection Authority (EEPA) and Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) also showed that variation among sampling points were statistically significant (p<0.5). Similarly, the levels of all these physicochemical parameters in the downstream site of the river were higher as compared to the values obtained from the upstream site (control). This indicated that the downstream site of the river is polluted as a result of the direct discharge of the tannery effluent to it.

    Time:

    Title: Interpretation Under Surface Area of Lampung Barat with Geoelectricity Method to Obtain Fault Field

    Yusraida Khaerani Dalimunthe
    Universitas Trisakti, Indonesia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Yusraida Khaerani Dalimunthe
    Universitas Trisakti, Indonesia.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Yusraida Khaerani Dalimunthe
    Universitas Trisakti, Indonesia.

    Time:

    Title: Environmental charcterization of Marine Environment of the southern coastal area of Sfax

    Ikram Naifar
    National Engineering School of Sfax, Tunisia.

    Biography
    χ

    Biography

    Ikram Naifar
    National Engineering School of Sfax, Tunisia.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Ikram Naifar
    National Engineering School of Sfax, Tunisia.

    The southern coastal area of Sfax is one of the Mediterranean coasts which suffer since several decades of a large industrial pressure occupying 50% of the total area. This status has caused a degradation of the environment (natural environment, quality of life, local population and environmental etc.). This study investigates the distribution of metal concentrations in surface marine sediments and water of the southern coast of Sfax. Thirty seven of surface marine sediment were collected from the (Tunisia), sieved in the <63 μm fraction and analysed by inductively coupled plasma Mass spectrometry for several heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd and Fe). Moderate pollution of sediments, especially by Pb, Zn, and Ni, was shown to exist in localized sites. Besides, it was shown that other sites, slightly to highly enriched in terms of Cu, Cr, and Cd, are characterized by a quality of sediments varying from unpolluted to moderately polluted

    Time:

    Title: The Effect of Mt Agung Volcanic Aerosol to Global Warming Based on Analysis of Temperature and e-Folding Time

    Selvia Sari
    University of Padjadjaran, Indonesia.

    Biography
    χ

    Biography

    Selvia Sari
    University of Padjadjaran, Indonesia.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Selvia Sari
    University of Padjadjaran, Indonesia.

    Mt. Agung (3142 masl) located in Rendang Subdistrict, Karangasem Regency, Bali at 8°20’35.92’’S and 115°30’25.41’’E. Mt. Agung largest eruption was last recorded on March 17th 1963 while the volcanic activity continue until January 1964. The March 1963 eruption ejected volcanic ashes up to 23 kilometer to the atmosphere. Other than ashes, the eruption also expelled some amount of SO2 gasses that then reacted into aerosol (H2SO4) in the stratosphere. This research aims to understand the effect of volcanic aerosol to climate and global warming. Analysis from temperature comparison and e-folding time was made to correlate the effect of aerosol to global warming. Estimation from space instrument SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment-II) showed that during the eruption period of 1963-1964, Mt. Agung released 16-30 Teragrams of aerosol with 10.3 months of e-folding time. Decrease in temperature recorded was 0.3-0.4 degree Celsius. Comparison between Mt. Agung 1963 eruption showed that volcanic aerosol is not capable in repressing the rate of global warming.

    Time:

    Title: PETREL Worflow for Multi-Attribute Analysis: Case Study in Malay Basin

    Shook Peng Kee
    Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Shook Peng Kee
    Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia.

    S.P.Kee is currently a MSc student in University Teknologi PETRONAS under the supervision of Dr. Deva Ghosh and A.P. Askury Kadir. This paper is part of her research which focuses on structural analysis in Malay Basin, Terengganu, Malaysia.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Shook Peng Kee
    Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia.

    In PETREL, minute processes and details can be included into a comprehensive conceptual workflow in the software to generate outputs more efficiently. The seismic data used were located in Malay Basin. Aggressive and Passive ant track surface map were created using the Ant Track workflow to detect all large and small faults present in the seismic input. A conceptual Multi-Attribute workflow is innovated from the existing Ant Track workflow to ease the process of multi attribute analysis. The PETREL conceptual workflow consists of Data Filtering, Attribute Application and lastly Map Generation phases. At this stage, coherence-ant track attributed map was generated as a test. NE-SW and ESE-WNW fracture trends were identified via rose diagram plotting. This result is similar with the fracture pattern from Anding Field in Malay basin, which indicate that the faulting was caused by regional-scaled tectonics. Based on the success to produce an attribute map from the conceptual workflow, it is observable that the workflow has no execution error. This 3-phases conceptual workflow could be applied on other seismic data with potential to be coded as a PETREL plugin.

    Time:

    Title: The distribution of the platinum group element (PGE), in the Merensky Reef

    Nosibulelo Zilibokwe Zilibokwe
    Council for Geoscience,South Africa.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Nosibulelo Zilibokwe Zilibokwe
    Council for Geoscience,South Africa.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Nosibulelo Zilibokwe Zilibokwe
    Council for Geoscience,South Africa.

    The distribution of the platinum group element (PGE), in the Merensky Reef was characterized by, first determining the occurrence of the platinum group minerals (PGM), then by establishing the PGE concentration in the base metal sulphides (BMS) associated with the PGE mineralization in the Merensky Reef from selected borehole intersections, at the Two Rivers (TRP) and Modikwa Platinum Mines in the Eastern Bushveld Complex. A mineral liberation analyser (MLA) was then used to identify the PGM phases; their silicate and base metal associations; and their grain size distribution. Electron microprobe quantitative analysis and mapping were then used to determine the compositional variation of the PGM and the PGE elemental distribution in the BMS, respectively. The study showed that the BMS including pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite were the principal sulphides, where pyrrhotite was most prominent with minor quantities of pyrite. Orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and plagioclase were the most abundant primary silicate minerals identified, while secondary silicates identified included talc, serpentine and amphibole. Platinum group minerals showed three distinct groups with respect to the mineralogical association with the PGE; (i) BMS association; (ii) chromite association; and (iii) silicate association. Of the BMS, chalcopyrite showed the most dominant association with the PGMs. All samples from both mines exhibited a wide range of PGMs, including maslovite, braggite, cooperate, laurite and PGE alloys such as ferroplatinum as well as other unidentified platinum and palladium sulphides, arsenides and bismuthides, while gold was present as electrum. The PGMs ranged in size from less than a micron to about 125 microns with an average of 20 microns. The close association of PGM with BMS along the margins of sulphides indicates that the PGMs were derived from the sulphide melt. PGE distribution in the sulphides at Modikwa showed pentlandite contained the highest concentrations of palladium (up to 379 ppm) and chalcopyrite hosting the highest rhodium concentrations (up to 793 ppm). Samples from Two Rivers revealed pentlandite as the principal host to both palladium and rhodium, with concentrations reaching up to 695 and 930 ppm, respectively. Magnetite at both Modikwa and Two Rivers showed significant rhodium content, reaching up to 982 and 930 ppm, respectively. The pyrrhotite compared to other sulphides contained all the elements found in the platinum group (PPGE), namely, platinum, palladium and rhodium, with all the platinum identified found in the pyrrhotite. The concentrations for the iridium group (IPGE) namely, iridium, osmium, and ruthenium were below the detection limit. The PGE mineralization in the stratigraphy varied within each mine. The mineralization revealed top loading in the central sector (Modikwa) and bottom loading in the southern sector (Two Rivers). The sequence of the Merensky Reef at the two sectors of the Eastern Bushveld Complex showed a remarkable similarity in their mineralogy suggesting that these two sectors were formed from the same liquid or formed simultaneously within a single magma chamber; however the PGE distribution within the stratigraphy may have been controlled by the presence of cumulate sulphides.

    Time:

    Title: REE Occurrences in Sumatera based on Granites Geochemical Characteristic in Sumatera Island, Indonesia

    Mira Widyariestha
    University of Padjadjaran, Indonesia.

    Biography
    χ

    Biography

    Mira Widyariestha
    University of Padjadjaran, Indonesia.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Mira Widyariestha
    University of Padjadjaran, Indonesia.

    In Indonesia, abundance of REE concentration was found in several areas in Sumatera and its surrounding islands. Most of Sumatera’s REE occurred in monazite minerals from weathering of granite. The REE from weathered granite in Sumatera are located in Banda Aceh, North Sumatera; Bukit Dua Belas, Jambi; and in Sumatera’s surrounding islands comprising of Singkep, Riau; Bangka, and Belitung Island. Geographically, Singkep, Bangka and Belitung island located in a lineament with NW-SE trend. Bukit Dua Belas and Banda Aceh also located in another lineament that has similar trend with Singkep, Bangka, and Belitung. Based on granites comparison in Sumatera, this research aims to determine whether the trend of REE pattern in Sumatera indicate a pathway of REE. The comparison will be made from major elements geochemistry of Banda Aceh, Bukit Dua Belas, Singkep, Bangka, and Belitung granites. Comparison also will be made between granite containing REE mentioned before with granites in Sumatera. Digital Elevation Models (DEM) image in Sumatera will be observed to find the similarities of erosional intensity throughout Sumatera. Based on geochemical observation granites in Sumatera have varied composition. Granite in Bangka, Singkep, and Belitung has similar major elements geochemistry character, meanwhile granites in another parts of Sumatera have different geochemical character. DEM data also showed varied erosion intensity in Sumatera. Thus, trend similarity does not indicate REE pathway, REE can occur in another location in Sumatera but different with REE in Singkep, Bangka, and Belitung.

    Time:

    Title: Field Character, Petrography And Petrogenesis Of Pan-African Granites In Coimbatore And Erode Districts Of Tamil Nadu, India

    Anshu R
    Madras University, India.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Anshu R
    Madras University, India.

    R. Anshu, born in India during 02 September 1994. I had received B.Sc. degree in Geology in Presidency college in 2014 and M.Sc. degree in Geology from University of Madras in 2016. At present, he is doing research work on ‘Field character, Petrography and Petrogenesis of Pan-African Granites of Tamil Nadu, India’ in Madras University.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Anshu R
    Madras University, India.

    A number of Pan-African granites are exposed in Northern Granulite Belt of central Tamil Nadu. These granite bodies run parallel to Moyar-Bhavani-Attur shear zone and intrude into hornblende biotite gneiss, charnockite and older basic / ultramafic rocks. Three types of granites have been demarcated viz., medium to coarse-grained granite, medium grained leuco-granite and pegmatoidal granite. Megascopically, these granites show almost similar character. It is emplaced as different stock for about 150 km in linear fashion from east to west. Their size varies from a few hundred metres to few kilometres in length and 5m to 250m in width. They are massive to weakly foliated. It exhibits compositional variation viz., alkali-feldspar granite, syeno-granite, monzo-granite and grano-diorite. These are medium to coarse-grained, equigranular, leucocratic and essentially made up of quartz (40%), alkali feldspar (25–40%), plagioclase feldspar (10–40%) and biotite. Apatite, zircon and tourmaline are the accessory minerals. Quartz crystals show anhedral nature. Plagioclase is mostly sub-hedral (oligoclase-andesine). The alkali-feldspar represented by orthoclase and microcline. Chemically, these are calc-alkaline in nature, peraluminous to metaluminous and exhibit higher SiO2 and total alkali. The Chondrite normalised REE pattern indicates enrichment of LREE. The geochemical attributes are comparable with S-type granites. The mechanism of emplacement of this granite is mostly passive type and is post-kinematic in nature. Most of the granites were generated by partial melting of older continental crust between 450 – 510 Ma. Significant crustal component was involved in the generation of these granites as indicated by high initial Sr ratio (0.71214).

    Time:

    Title: Modelling of an unconfined aquifer and study of climate change: the triffa plain, morocco

    Boughriba Mimoun
    Universite Mohammed Premier Oujda, Morocco.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Boughriba Mimoun
    Universite Mohammed Premier Oujda, Morocco.



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    Abstract

    Boughriba Mimoun
    Universite Mohammed Premier Oujda, Morocco.

    The Triffa Plain is located in the northeastern corner of Morocco and has a surface area of about 750 km˛.. The climate of this region is semi-arid . The basement of the plain is formed by Secondary and Quaternary formations. From the hydrogeological point of view, this region is characterized by two principal aquifers: (1) an unconfined aquifer hosted by the Secondary and Quaternary formations; (2) a confined aquifer hosted by the Liassic (Jurassic) formation . The development of a conceptual hydrogeological model for the Triffa aquifer was based on borehole data, bedrock geology, hydrodynamic parameters, piezometric maps and time series of water level, as well as times series of precipitations gathered from several meteorological stations and pumping wells. The data were incorporated in the Geographic Information System (GIS) platform and processed using groundwater modeling software. The development of the numerical model and its limitations are discussed in the present work. Subsequently, we studied the impact of climate change on the Triffa aquifer, assuming the low (B1), mean (A1B), and extreme (A1F1) climate scenarios, developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change . We modeled a respective decrease in recharge in all of the study area of 6, 12, and 38% up to year 2099. The calibration of the model in steady and transient states shows a good agreement between the observed and simulated heads. The simulation of the impact of climate change on groundwater by a decrease in the recharge highlights the groundwater drawdown occurring in this region

    Time:

    Title: Establishing the possible reason of contaminating Dupi Tila aquifer and Hazaribag tannery waste(Cr) in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    B.M.Rabby Hossain
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Biography
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    Biography

    B.M.Rabby Hossain
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.



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    Abstract

    B.M.Rabby Hossain
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Dhaka is one the most pollutant city ranked fifth amongst ten most pollutant city in the world. Tannery waste is one of the major polluting source in Dhaka city which is located in the Hazaribagh area near the Buriganga River. All the tannery waste are dumped into the nearby canals or drains. Some of these wastes deposits in the nearby ditches and rest of them ultimately flows to the river Buriganga without being treated. This waste water not polluting the study area only but the river buriganga contaminating itself and transporting these wastes further disatnaces in the downstream region. The major source of drinking water is Dupi-Tila aquifer of Mio-Pliocene age which is underlain by the Madhupur clay formation. But this major clay fromation was absent in the study area which puts a great threat for contaminating Groundwater in the study region. Chromium has been measured in several shallow and deep tube wells in Hazaribagh area and found detectable cromium concentration in every well. The major source of contamination is chromium salt which is used in tannery for hide processing purposes. Several soil samples of different depth from four bore holes have been chemically tested and higher concentration of Cr is observed in top soil in the study area which may ultimately leaches through the ground with time and mixes with the groundwater. A relation is established through this study why the high concentration of cromium which was found near the ground but not at greater depth in four boreholes. Several samples from two different boreholes were sieved to see the grain size distribution at different depth nearby the study area. From the grain size distribution curve, hydraulic conductivity were measured folowing the Hazen equaton K= C (D10)2. It was found that a very fine silty clay layer coverd the whole study area at a depth of 3m-10m in the study area with very low hydraulic conductivity. This may retards the movement of cromium into the ground.

    Time:

    Title: Geoelectric Investigation Of Aquifer Characteristics And Ground Water Potential Of Sule Lamido University Kafin Hausa, Jigawa State, Nigeria.

    Ibrahim Garba Shitu
    Sule Lamido University, Nigeria.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Ibrahim Garba Shitu
    Sule Lamido University, Nigeria.



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    Abstract

    Ibrahim Garba Shitu
    Sule Lamido University, Nigeria.

    Twenty vertical electrical soundings (VES) points using Schlumberger electrode configurations were sounded within the vicinity of Sule Lamido University Kafin- Hausa main campus using ALIED OHMEGA Terrameter. The data acquired from the field was interpreted using IPI2win and Suffer (Version 11). The result obtained was compared with the borehole log and geology of the area. The study area shows a six layered formation, Clayey sand as the first layer, with thickness ranging from 0.051 m to 3.154 m, mixed medium sand with coarse sand as the second layer, with thickness ranging from 0.229 m to 4.01 m, mixed fine sand with medium to coarse sand as the third layer, with thickness ranging from 0.024 m to 6.56 m, medium to coarse sand with silt stone as the fourth layer, with thickness ranging from 0.027 m to 11.321 m, medium to coarse sand as the fifth layer, with thickness ranging from 0.080m to 42.756m and medium to coarse sand as the sixth layer with thickness ranging from 0.288 m to 133.93 m. the sounding curves obtained when resistivity values ware plotted against half current electrode spacing (AB/2) are QAQ, HQH, KHA,HKQ, KAK, HAA, QAA, HHA, QKH, HAH HKH and KKH. Review of the past ground water exploration activity in Kafin-Hausa Metropolis shows that the maximum drilling depth of borehole in the area is 45m. However, this research based on the acquired data analysed, and interpreted recommends a drilling depth for confined and unconfined aquifer of about 130 m to 144 m and 25 m to 45 m respectively. The peak SP values were used in identifying areas with greater depth of flow in the study area. From the analysis of overburden thickness, aquifer thickness and SP values, the areas or sites with their respective locations recommended for optimum ground water exploration activities within the study area are VES 2(12.2317800N, 9.8812430E), 3(12.2291700N, 9.8801370E), 4(12.2308130N, 9.881970E), 5(12.230140N, 9.889670E), 7(12.2314010N, 9.8909110E), 9(12.227120, 9.892370E), 10(12.230730N, 9.879100E), 12(12.230360N, 9.879330E), 13(12.230980N, 9.877850E) and 14(12.228490N, 9.877160E).

    Time:

    Title: Status of underground water resources in the Central Oran Coastal watershed

    Rym Ait Mohamed Amer
    University of Science and Technology, Algeria.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Rym Ait Mohamed Amer
    University of Science and Technology, Algeria.



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    Abstract

    Rym Ait Mohamed Amer
    University of Science and Technology, Algeria.

    Water resources are generally low in Algeria and especially in western Algeria. The Central Oran Coastal watershed, the object of our study, is no exception, the available water resources are more or less limited, from the point of view of the availability of surface water (wadis) and water underground (tablecloths, water points). The exploitation of groundwater resources is important in this watershed compared to the surface water resources which are weak, this is explained by the presence of the salines: Sebkha of Oran and Arzew. Our research work carried out is devoted to the hydrogeological study of the Central Oran Coastal watershed, using a set of data: endogenous (cartographic, Radar image 'SRTM' and the 'MNT'), and exogenous (climatic, hydrogeological, hydrological), for the establishment of a Geographical Information System 'GIS', to assess and analyze the balance of groundwater resources in the watershed studied. The study area is S = 4610Km2, P = 337,1 mm, T = 18,1°C, Evp = 19,13 mm, R = 23 mm/year (represent 6% of P). The most important water table: Karsal Tablecloth of the Murdjadjo Mountains≈ 14,2HM3/year. The hydrodynamic parameters of the hydrogeological units are weak: Transmissivity (1,0.10-4, 1,4.10-2 m˛/s), Permeability (10-5, 10-3), Storage coefficient does not exceed 0,3. GIS approach piezometry made it possible to determine that the direction of flow is divergent from North-South/South-North direction, towards the sea, the Sebkha of Oran and the Daiets. The monitoring of the water level variation shows that it is not stable (Min = -4,95m, Max = + 8m).

    Time:

    Title: Evaluation of the vulnerability to water pollution by the nitrates (N03-) using SI method Case of the alluvial groundwater of Sidi-Bel-Abbes

    Saad Assia
    Algerian space agency, Algeria.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Saad Assia
    Algerian space agency, Algeria.



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    Abstract

    Saad Assia
    Algerian space agency, Algeria.

    In recent years, the industrialization of agriculture has caused multiple environmental impacts. The agricultural sector has become, over time, the main economic sector responsible for the pollution of groundwater resources. Preservation of groundwater quality has become a necessity, especially in semi-arid areas where groundwater is the main source of water. In Algeria, the alluvial groundwater of Sidi-Bel-Abbes represents a considerable resource for irrigation and drinking water supply. The protection of this resource becomes essential in order to safeguard, in the medium and long term, its quality. In this perspective, the objective of our study is to develop a vulnerability map to pollution by the application of the parametric SI method, which assesses the specific vulnerability to nitrate pollution, using jointly the remote sensing techniques and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This method allowed us to precisely characterize three classes of vulnerability of the groundwater: 8.85% of the water table of Sidi-Bel-Abbes presents a very strong vulnerability; 27.36% are highly vulnerable; and 63.78% have a low vulnerability.

    Time:

    Title: Landform evolution and fluvial geomorphologic system changes impact on the livelihood and people of Daulatpur and Shibalaya Upazila (sub-district), Manikganj District of Bangladesh

    Jahangir Alam
    Geological Survey of Bangladesh, Bangladesh.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Jahangir Alam
    Geological Survey of Bangladesh, Bangladesh.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Jahangir Alam
    Geological Survey of Bangladesh, Bangladesh.

    The study area is located in the middle portion of the country, usually enjoying a humid tropical and sub-tropical monsoon climate. The area is mainly floodplain and greatly influenced by the Padma (Ganges) River and the Jamuna (Brahmaputra) with these mixed two’s. Northern portion is influenced by the Jamuna and southern zone is by the Padma, though there is confluence zone nearing Shibalaya area it is dominated by the Padma River and sediments are calcareous. From remote sensing studies, DEM analyses and investigations evidenced that the eastern and northern parts are more elevated than the eastern part of the area. The northeastern corner of the area shows comparatively lower elevation as because the presence of plenty of depressions, fallen course of rivers, meander scarps and low lands there. These geomorphic variations are possibly due to the volume of sediments deposited by the transporting rivers; channel shifting, avulsion and on-going neotectonic activities. Numerous faults and so many lineations are discovered so far within this area. This area classified into seven morphostratigraphic units and six (6) distinct lithostratigraphic units. Here the morpho-stratigraphic units are: A) Over bank Deposit: (1) Floodplain Deposit, (2) Natural Levee Deposit, (3) Flood basin Deposit; B) In-Channel Deposit: (1) Channel Bar Deposit, (2) Lateral Bar Deposit and C) Channel-fill Deposit: (1) Meander Scroll Deposit, (2) Floodplain Scroll Deposit. The vertical distribution of the sediments indicates the presence of six lithostratigraphic units i.e., litho-facies are: 1) Unit-I (Sand Facies), 2) Unit-II (Clayey Silt and Silty Clay Facies, 3) Unit-III (Sand Facies), 4) Unit-IV (Silty Clay/Clayey Silt Facies), 5) Unit-V (Sand Facies), and 6) Unit-VI (Silty Clay/Clayey Silt/ Peaty Clay/Clayey Peat/Peat). It is evident that Unit-I (Sand Facies) might have been deposited by vertical accretion in fluvial system under semiarid and cool climatic conditions during Plio-Pleistocene (?) time. Sediments of Unit-II (Clayey Silt and Silty Clay Facies) resemble to Madhupur Clay Residuum and were deposited in Mid-Late Pleistocene time which are weathered and altered under humid tropical climatic condition. Depth of occurrence of this deposit indicates presence of a major fault in between Dhaka-Savar region and the study area. Presence of plenty of pebbles in the deposits of the Unit-III (Sand Facies) indicates possible deposition as distal part of fan sequence in Early Holocene time under tropical to sub-tropical humid climatic condition. Unit-IV (Silty Clay/Clayey Silt Facies) had possibly been deposited in Early–Mid Holocene under humid to semiarid climatic condition; Sediments of Unit-V (Sand Facies) are channel sand deposits which had been deposited in Mid Holocene time in low energy condition under tropical to sub-tropical humid climate, and most of the deposits of Unit-VI (Silty Clay/Clayey Silt/Peaty Clay/Clayey Peat/Peat) are of Recent time and are deposited by the Padma, Ichhamati (almost stable in its course from the last two centuries) and Kaliganga river systems. Sedimentological interpretation and geochemical behavior of the deposits indicate that the sediments are deposited by both the Jamuna and the Padma (Ganges) river systems. The southern sediments are calcareous indicating depositional history related to Padma (Ganges) River system, whereas the northern sediments are mainly non-calcareous thus related to the Jamuna-Brahmaputra River system. The topsoil and upper surface of cultivable lands are disturbed by huge sediment load invasion and the last mega floods from the Jamuna and Dhaleshwari River interrupted the regular cultivation and cropping system which is affecting to a great extent, because of soil forming processes are still incomplete. Active fluvial tectonic activities like new set-up of mega braiding Jamuna system, dead rivers like Noai river, channeling braided system, river shifting of the Dhaleshwari and migration and drying up of Paleo-channel are common geomorphologic phenomena in this area, which are directly affecting occupation, jobs, farming, lifestyle and livelihood of the inhabitants. Keywords: Fluvial Geomorphology; Neotectonic activities; Sediments; River system; Soil.

    Time:

    Title: Influence of enhanced Asian NOx emissions on ozone in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) in chemistry climate model simulations

    Chaitri Roy
    Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, India.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Chaitri Roy
    Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, India.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Chaitri Roy
    Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, India.

    The Asian summer monsoon (ASM) anticyclone is the most pronounced circulation pattern in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) during Northern Hemisphere summer. Asian summer monsoon convection plays an important role in efficient vertical transport from the surface to the upper-level anticyclone. In this paper we investigate the potential impact of enhanced anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions on the distribution of ozone in the UTLS using the fully-coupled aerosol chemistry climate model, ECHAM5-HAMMOZ. Ozone in the UTLS is influenced both by the convective uplift of ozone precursors and by the uplift of enhanced NOx induced tropospheric ozone anomalies. We performed anthropogenic NOx emission sensitivity experiments over India and China. In these simulations, covering the years 2000-2010 anthropogenic NOx emissions have been increased by 38% over India and by 73% over China with respect to the emission base year 2000. These emission increases are comparable to the observed linear trends of 3.8 % per year over India and 7.3% per year over China during the period 2000 to 2010. Enhanced NOx emissions over India by 38 % and China by 73 % increase the ozone radiative forcing in the ASM Anticyclone (15ş-40°N, 60ş-120°E) by 16.3 mW m-2 and 78.5 mW m-2 respectively. These elevated NOx emissions produce significant warming over the Tibetan Plateau and increase precipitation over India due to a strengthening of the monsoon Hadley circulation. However increase in NOx emissions over India by 73% (similar to the observed increase over China), results in large ozone production over the Indo Gangetic plain and Tibetan Plateau. The higher ozone concentrations, in turn, induce a reversed monsoon Hadley circulation and negative precipitation anomalies over India. The associated subsidence suppresses vertical transport of NOx and ozone into the ASM anticyclone.

    Time:

    Title: LULC and planform dynamics in -River Space- of the Ganga for assessment of human impact

    Siba Prasad Mohanty
    IISER Kolkata, India.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Siba Prasad Mohanty
    IISER Kolkata, India.

    Siba Prasad Mohanty was born in Odisha, India, in 1992. He received the Bsc degree in Geology from Utkal University, India in 2013, Msc from Indian Institute of Technology (IITKGP), India in 2015 and Mtech degree in Indian Institute of Technology (IITK), India in 2017. He qualified various National entrance examinations like Jam (Joint admission Test), NET (National eligible test), and GATE (Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering). He has a very good knowledge in various Remote sensing techniques and software and has done a project on LULC changes in river basin in the Ganga river for 15 years in IIT Kanpur.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Siba Prasad Mohanty
    IISER Kolkata, India.

    River Space’ defines the corridor along the river including the channel belt and active floodplain and these needs to be protected from human interventions for a sustainable river management. Changes in land use and land within the river space are a serious problem as they affect the river processes in a major way. In addition, river planform changes are generally attributed to changes in hydrology and sediment transport. A combined assessment of LULC changes in river space and planform dynamics and the interaction between the two is therefore critical for maintaining the river health. The major objective of this study was to investigate the changes in LULC and channel pattern due to various man-made activities in the river space of three selected windows along the Ganga River around Haridwar, Narora and Kanpur. The LULC data for these three windows obtained from NRSC was processed for three years 2005, 2010, and 2015. Likewise, Landsat data was processed in Arc GIS environment to understand the channel migration in these windows. Results show that the crop land and current fallow classes have undergone at a decadal time scale. An increasing trend of crop land was observed within the active flood plain of the Haridwar and Narora windows whereas the Kanpur window shows a mixed trend. Moreover, urbanization also shows anincreasing trend in river space at the cost of natural vegetation and wasteland. On the other hand, the planform parameter shows a mixed trend in all three windows. Sinuosity variation in different windows does not show any trend but a significant increase in bar area in all windows suggests a marked change in sediment supply and flow velocity on a decadal scale. Human interventions such as barrages have influenced the planform morphology in a significant way particularly in terms of sediment accumulation both upstream and downstream of the intervention.

    Time:

    Title: Facies analysis and depositional environment of middle Permian Barakar Formation from North Karanpura Coal field, India: Establishing a model from core and geophysical log data

    Joyjit Dey
    Coal India Limited, India.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Joyjit Dey
    Coal India Limited, India.

    Joyjit Dey, serves as an exploration geologist in world’s highest coal producing company i.e Coal India Limited for the past one year. As a field geologist he is engaged in observation and interpretation of subsurface litho-structural data, fault fold induced seam architecture and takes part in preparation of geological report for future exploration purposes. Mr. Dey is also involved in several research projects and currently he is working on the formation and through time the plausible basin evolution of major Gondwana Basins in India. Previously his work on the sub-himalayan structural complexity, reservoir porosity model got published in esteemed journals.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Joyjit Dey
    Coal India Limited, India.

    The North Karanpura coal field, a western most member of the east-west trending major Gondwana Basin (i.e Damodar Valley basin), constitutes the middle Permian Barakar formation as prime economic coal-bearing unit with sandstone, siltstone, coal and shale as the other governing lithologies. The dominant facies interpreted from twenty borehole core analysis are classified as Sandstone dominated facies, Sandstone - shale heterolith facies, Shale facies and Coal facies. Also, study from the natural Gamma response of Barakar formation depicts predominance of repetitive fining upwards cycles. Integration of core analysis and geophysical log data deciphers meandering fluvial environment with coals chiefly forming in floodplains and swamps. Moreover four major fining upward depositional sequences, bounded by sub-aerial unconformities (sequence boundaries) were identified in Barakar formation, based on changes in depositional style that can be correlated regionally. Each sequence comprises of Low accommodation system tract (LAST) at base and high accommodation system tract (HAST) at top. LAST is characterized by vertically stacked, multistory amalgamated channel sandstone dominated facies, while floodplain dominated facies delineates HAST, reflecting a gradual shift from braided to meandering depositional system from bottom to top of each cycle. Study from Geophysical logs have been employed to compute various coal assay parameters in each seam, that typifies lateral coal quality variation, i.e. decreasing ash content, decreased cleat porosity towards basin margin. This study serves as a powerful tool to establish depositional architecture of any basin worldwide by employing a prominent marker horizon (in this case coal) with greater degree of confidence.

    Time:

    Title: Seismic Stratigraphic And Petrophysical Characterisation Of Reservoirs Of The Agbada Formation From Well M, Offshore Eastern Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

    Edwin Ayuk Ndip
    Pan African University, Nigeria.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Edwin Ayuk Ndip
    Pan African University, Nigeria.

    Edwin Ayuk Ndip is a Ph.D. scholar from Cameroon and studying in the University of Ibadan and Pan African University, Ibadan Nigeria. He holds a BSc in Geology with a minor in Petroleum Technology from the University of Buea, Cameroon. He also holds an MSc in Applied Geology awarded from a thesis titled ‘SEISMIC STRATIGRAPHIC AND PETROPHYSICAL CHARACTERISATION OF RESERVOIRS OF THE AGBADA FORMATION FROM WELL M, OFFSHORE EASTERN NIGER DELTA BASIN, NIGERIA’ from the same University. His current Ph.D. research focuses on organic geochemistry and organic petrography of lacustrine black shale in the Mamfe basin, SW Cameroon.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Edwin Ayuk Ndip
    Pan African University, Nigeria.

    Two dimensional seismic and composite well logs from well M in the eastern offshore Niger delta basin were used to carry out a seismic stratigraphic and petrophysical characterization of reservoirs of the Agbada Formation. Three seismic sequences have been delineated within a time window of 600ms-2200ms showing depositional environments that have prograded from the delta platform in seismic sequence one (S1) down to the wave dominated prodelta /slope in seismic sequences three (S3). Five seismic facies (F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5) have been mapped within the study area with F2, the hydrocarbon habitat, consisting of deltaic distributary channel fills. The deposits of F2 were formed during aggradation to progradation of the delta and are considered to be High stand system tracts (HST) reservoirs. Twenty reservoirs zones (A-T) were identified with porosity ranging from 0.192 to 0.423 and permeability from 5.078 to 12,397.895md, indicating very good porosity and permeability as a result of the low shale volume (0.031-0.148). The values for the bulk volume water are constant or nearly constant throughout the reservoirs and the reservoirs are said to be at irreducible water saturation implying the reservoir can produce water free hydrocarbon hence they are very good hydrocarbon reservoirs. The reservoirs qualities of well M are good and some of the reservoirs are proliferous. This well M could therefore serve as a control well in hydrocarbon exploration in the offshore depobelt.

    Time:

    Title: Investigation of Granular Materials by Ultrasonic Velocities

    Asif Zeb
    Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Asif Zeb
    Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey.

    Asif Zeb is doing Masters form Dokuz Eylul University and working on his thesis.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Asif Zeb
    Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey.

    In this study, the ultrasonic compressional (P) wave velocities are measured for sands and gravels. Due to heterogeneous mixture of granular materials, waves in these systems are more complex. Different types of experiments are carried out during this study to get knowledge about ultrasonic wave propagation. Force chain is one of the key element of a granular system along which the waves are transmitted. Compressional (P) velocities in dry samples were low for sand. The behavior of compressional (P) waves is studied in granular media under different scenarios like granular material filled with water, granular material filled with cement and also granular material filled with oil. Ultrasonic waves are produced and receivers are used on the other end of granular material to get the readings. By increasing the pressure, the compressional (P) wave velocities also increased. These experiments demonstrate that compressional (P) wave are sensitive to the presence of water, cement and oil. By increasing the viscosity of the granular material, the velocity of ultrasonic wave also increases. Granular media filled with oil has more viscosity so the velocity of the ultrasonic wave will be faster as compared to water filled granular material. Compaction is one of the most important characteristic to identify type of granular material. More the compaction then more will be the velocity of ultrasonic waves in a granular material.

    Time:

    Title: L- band ScanSAR Interferometry for crustal deformation study in Western Himalaya

    Somalin Nath
    Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, India.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Somalin Nath
    Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, India.

    Somalin Nath is a research scholar in IIRS, Dehradun currently persuing PhD on ‘‘Crustal Deformation study in Uttarakhand and Himachal Himalaya’’ from IIT(ISM) Dhanbad, holds M. Tech from ISM Dhanbad and M. Sc from Sambalpur University. She is Gold Medalist in MSc and 1st rank holder during BSc. She has presented research papers on ‘Geomorphic indicators coupled with GPR for active tectonic study in piedmont region’, ‘Deformation analysis of Nepal earthquakes’ and ‘Nepal earthquake: Earth Observations for geodynamics and hazard mitigation’, at various conferences during 2015-2017.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Somalin Nath
    Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, India.

    Himalayan terrain has experienced a number of devastating earthquakes in last 500 years showing active tectonic deformation over a stretch of 2500km long. Most of the deformation caused near the major thrusts showing areas of strain accumulation. The crustal shortening at a rate of 1.9 cm/yr from the geodetic observations show the interseismic deformation causing slip on thrust planes which allows to study more about the ongoing deformation along there major thrusts. Interferometric analysis having L band ScanSAR Interferometry is very much useful for large event deformation monitoring in remote areas compared to C and X bands. Most of the work describes only the seismic event happened in the different part of Himalayan Belt using SAR data by various authors. Still there is a need of exploring Western Himalaya as far as ongoing deformation is concerned. ScanSAR Interferometry technique is quite challenging to detect any areas of strain accumulation as the technique itself has some processing constraints (Burst Overlap, Doppler Centroid Frequency, Temporal Baseline etc.). Therefore in this study we have approached the need of ScanSAR technique for large scale deformation pattern in Western Himalaya. Few studies suggest the slip vector in certain areas along HFT. Hence detailed study is needed in order to map the deformation pattern along the frontal part of Himalaya.

    Time:

    Title: Rock Physics Modeling to Determine The Pore Geometric Effect of Carbonate Reservoir Toward Seismic Wave Velocity

    Angga Tri Saputra
    Institute Technology of Sumatera, Indonesia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Angga Tri Saputra
    Institute Technology of Sumatera, Indonesia.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Angga Tri Saputra
    Institute Technology of Sumatera, Indonesia.

    The carbonate reservoir (limestone and dolomite) is the dominant reservoir as a 50% contributor of oil and gas reserves worldwide (Shiyu Xu et al., 2009). Rock physics modeling is an accurate, precise and practical method, considering that carbonate is known for its complexity in the pore geometry (Eberli et al., 2003). Rock physics modeling can be used to improve the physical properties of rocks by determining the quality of reservoir, fluid type, pore geometry, porosity and permeability of a rock or a formation. The purpose of this modeling pore geometry carbonate reservoir is to describe the effect of seismic waves towards pore geometry of carbonate reservoirs that which has heterogeneous, complex, highly variable pore structures and high chemical material reactivity (Shiyu Xu et al., 2009).

    Time:

    Title: Gypsum beef associated with lower Cretaceous sediments: Investigation of their formation processes in the Zemlet el Beidha Anticline, Southern Tunisia

    Nabil Abaab
    University of Gabes,Tunisia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Nabil Abaab
    University of Gabes,Tunisia.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Nabil Abaab
    University of Gabes,Tunisia.

    Bedding-parallel veins fibrous gypsum “beef” and faults were studied at the Jebel Zemlet el Beidha Structure (ZBAS) in Southern Tunisia. In a 130 m long profile several field studies of the lithostratigraphic column of the outcrops formation in the ZBAS and different measurement stations has been made to investigate the spatial distribution and the cause of formation of gypsum beef in the study area, especially within the clayey strata of low permeability. The internal fibrous structure of veins has revealed that they are formed, during basin inversion with Alpine compression within the lower Cretaceous to early Tertiary sedimentation. In the Bouhedma Fm 7 levels of beef is identified. Gypsum beef are easily visible and have formed perpendicular to the margins and thus appear to be perpendicular to bedding. In some examples, beef veins are shorter and overlap ‘en echelon’. The cumulative thickness of the beef veins in this cross section is ≈ 1, 8 m which is about 6% of the total (130 m). The study and the analysis of several stations of hydraulic fracture revealed an overpressure in the deposits of lower Cretaceous (Bouhedma Fm). This overpressure was generated related (1) to the mineralogical transformation from gypsum to anhydrite which is heavily involved in this stress regime, especially under all necessary conditions of gypsum dehydration (depth ≥700m and T ≥40°C) (2) the disequilibrium compaction has a important role in the generation of fluid overpressure and the creation of beefs structure in the study area in relation to the high rate of sedimentation and active subsidence related to the activity of syn-sedimentary fault, materialized by the high variation in thickness from SW to NE of the ZBAS and (3) the orientations of gypsum fibers have the same direction of constraints affecting the study area. The results showed that tectonics is most likely, responsible of this anomaly. Finally, Schematic sketches illustrating the proposed conceptual model of gypsum vein formation has down.

    Time:

    Title: Improved P-phase onset time picking for small magnitude events in passive microseismic data using Dynamic Amplitude Scaling

    Kuldeep Bharath Shekar
    Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Kuldeep Bharath Shekar
    Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Kuldeep Bharath Shekar
    Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India.

    Passive Seismic data is being increasingly used in exploration seismology. Considering the large size of passive seismic data many automatic algorithms have been formulated to locate the seismic events, which have been proved successful to a great extent. However, accurate picking of P-phase arrival time in case of small magnitude seismic events is a challenging task because of their lower amplitude ratio with the background noise. Here, we propose an algorithm to improve the picking of P-phase arrival times in waveforms recorded from small magnitude seismic events. We introduce a novel pre-processing algorithm called Dynamic Amplitude Scaling(DAS) which manipulates the signal in such a way that the more accurate picking of P-phase becomes possible. The waveform is multiplied by a scaling factor which varies with time. DAS results in increased weighting of higher amplitude components in the signal, which is related to the seismic events while suppressing lower amplitudes associated with background noise. We found that automatic phase picking algorithms yield superior results on data pre-processed using DAS when compared to raw data. We veried our algorithm on data and compared our results with the widely used and accepted automatic picking algorithm of STA/LTA triggering.

    Time:

    Title: Development Of A Better Model Of The Details Of Interactions Between Climate And Fluvial Erosion

    Igor Lisac
    German Geo Research Center, Croatia.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Igor Lisac
    German Geo Research Center, Croatia.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Igor Lisac
    German Geo Research Center, Croatia.

    At the GFZ Potsdam I am working on the development of a better model of the details of interactions between climate and fluvial erosion. There is a necessity to improve our understanding and modeling of how surface relief and topography affects rainfall patterns and the distribution of rainfall events both spatially and temporally, and in turn how this affects discharge distributions and patterns of erosion. In particular, it is important to develop a better understanding of the link between rainfall variability and mean, and discharge variability and mean in mountainous river catchments in order to build predictable models of long-term evolution of mountain belts, but also to predict the magnitudes and frequencies of natural hazards (e.g. landslides, floods). Currently, our understanding is limited by the assumption of uniformity of rainfall mean and variability in any catchment, which cannot be taken lightly in mountainous river catchments where the control of rainfall by orography cannot be neglected, as the mean rainfall intensity and variability varies greatly with altitude. Therefore, the main focus of my PhD project is to answer these questions i.e. to overcome these severe limitations, and to improve the current model of the relation of rainfall to discharge characteristics by taking into account the orographic effect on precipitation, and also the effect of finite storm size in large catchments. The acquired knowledge would be used to predict how these forcings affect erosional processes characterized by a threshold (e.g. river incision, landsliding).

    Time:

    Title: New paleomagnetic results on Sylhet traps, Shillong plateau, northeast India

    Mahesh Kapawar
    CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, India.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Mahesh Kapawar
    CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, India.

    A result oriented person having good interpersonal communication skills with Proactive Attitude. Seeking a career in the field of research in Geoscience. Worked as a Visiting Lecturer in Mahatma Gandhi Mission’s College of Engineering, Nanded, also as a Field Executive in Spectra Geoservices Pvt. Ltd. Hyderabad and currently pursuing PhD at CSIR-NGRI (National Geophysical Research Institute), Hyderabad. The author has attended numerous national conferences to present his work. Author is having one conference paper and two abstracts. Looking to collaborate with the International researchers and to expand the diameter of Knowledge.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Mahesh Kapawar
    CSIR-National Geophysical Research Institute, India.

    We present new preliminary Paleomagnetic results on Sylhet traps obtained in recent study. About 40 oriented samples were collected from eight sites located at and near Kyndrem falls on Cherrepunjee - Shella bazaar road, Shillong plateau, NE India. All the prepared standard specimens were measured for their Natural Ramanent Magnetization (NRM) and Susceptibility values. The average intensity is 1.528A/m. Alternating Field and Thermal demagnetization techniques were used to decipher the Primary Characteristic Remanent Directions. The obtained mean Declination and Mean Inclination were 250° and -18.25° (α95=19.4; k=10.51). The obtained Virtual Geomagnetic Pole (VGP) is at 18.25°S; 346.12°. The pole indicates that Sylhet traps may be a later event of Rajmahal traps. Even the Paleolatitude position for the Indian subcontinent during 117 Ma appears to be closer to the Equator as seen from the shallower Inclinations in this study

    Time:

    Title: Earth's Solar Radiation Form The Sun Possessing Interaction With Atmosphere And That Impacts On Climate.

    Anowar Hossen
    Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Bangladesh.

    Biography
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    Biography

    Anowar Hossen
    Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Bangladesh.

    Anowar Hossen has completed his Masters of Science degree (in Chemistry) from Bangladesh National University. He has also completed a meteorological training course Specified by WMO from Bangladesh Meteorological Training Institutet and also completed another Meteorological Course from Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics in Pakistan. He has been working in Bangladesh Meteorolo9gical Department for 14 years in various fields.



    Abstract
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    Abstract

    Anowar Hossen
    Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Bangladesh.

    Radiation from the sun is the main (and almost only) source of energy for the air, The Ocean and life on earth and elsewhere in the solar system .If there was no solar energy then there would be no winds because sun heats the ground and all air around .The heating of air depends on the transition of air and the latitude. The gasses persist in the air are not in the equal proportion Mostly various water vapors. Due to solar radiation weather and climate form at the atmosphere of it’s the nearest atmospheric layer of the earth surface. Before about 1900 temperature was assumed to decrease the with height to the atmosphere. By using high altitude balloon sounding were made and it shows that temperature is constant in some location and increase some in some states (e.g. 9 to 10 Km) and polar region 16 Km. Maximum is during March and September and smaller in June and December. Solar radiation in the southern hemisphere almost is a mirror image of that in the northern hemisphere. Near the equator uniform radiation prevails throughout the air. All bodies absorbed solar radiation as well as transmit it. Absorption the may be over the whole range of wave length or it may be concentrated in one or more portions, bands of wave length. Solar radiation is virtually all in the short wave length range less than 4 . About 15% of the incoming energy is absorbed directly by ozone and water vapor. Ozone absorbed all ultraviolet radiation below 0.29 and water vapor absorbed to a lesser extend in several narrow bands between 0.9 to 2.1 .About 40% of the solar radiation reflected back from various elements in the air, cloud and the earth surface. Only rest of the 60% of it the earth and heats the atmosphere. The earth itself directly absorbed 27% of incoming short waves together with and indirect 20% of energy reflected down or conducted from the atmosphere and reradiates then out wards as long wave of greater then 3 . Much of these reradiated long wave energy are absorbed by Carbon-dioxide,Water vapor, Ozone in the air. The rest escaping back into outer space. If matter does not interact with the incident radiation, no change in the matter because of the radiant energy that strikes it and it does not let the energy pass through it then it reflects the energy. If matter allows radiant energy to pass through it unchanged, the matter is described as transparent to the incident radiation. Again, as with reflection, there is no change in any of the properties of the radiant energy. If there is some interaction between the incident radiation and the matter (eg. some energy is transferred from the radiant beam to the matter resulting in an increase in molecular energy of the matter), this transfer of energy from the radiant beam to the matter as absorption.

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